News

Visit Canada Makes’ partners on the floor at Rapid

April 23rd RAPID + TCT conference opens in Fort Worth, Texas. This yearly event is where additive manufacturing industry meets to learn about new applications of the technology, hear about new product announcements and network with peers and industry experts. Some of the more than 300 exhibitors are Canada Makes partners so please take the time to drop by and hear about their latest products and services.

Exhibitor Booth #
AON3D 542
EOS 1118
Precision ADM 435
GE Additive 1318
Jesse Garant Metrology Center 737
Renishaw 718
Tekna 2528
TIGER-VAC 110
Custom Prototypes / Raplas America 736

Go here to view the floor plan.

The conference will cover the latest processes, applications, materials, and research in additive manufacturing, helping attendees to discover how best to utilize 3D technologies within their operations. There will be over 200 presentations to choose from, and each is labeled novice, intermediate, or expert.

  • 300+ 3D technology providers in one room – Witness major product launches, see the newest technologies at work, and do side-by-side comparisons.
  • The top forum for additive manufacturing education in North America – 200+ presentations to educate on how to use 3D technologies to improve creativity and execution, reduce costs, and bring products to market faster.
  • Networking with thousands of attendees – The most influential and experienced additive manufacturing professionals attend RAPID + TCT. Consult with the industry experts on equipment decisions, and find out how peers are addressing similar challenges at their organizations.
  • Daily Keynotes – Each morning will feature an industry-leading speaker.

Learn more more about RAPID + TCT here.

4th Annual Réseau Québec-3D Conference: Transforming your business model with 3D Printing

This coming May 16th, Réseau Québec-3D will hold its fourth annual 3D Printing conference in Montreal with the theme: “Transforming your business model with 3D Printing”. Be sure to join more than 200 participants and exhibitors for one of Canada’s most important additive manufacturing (AM) conferences.

The event is once again a collaborative effort between CRIQ, Prima Québec, Canada Makes and CRITM and offers the opportunity to hear world class experts in additive manufacturing who will present how this technology transformed their business model.

Don’t miss this opportunity to meet face-to-face and network with both international and national AM leaders that have demonstrated expertise throughout the additive manufacturing value chain and continue to help position Québec and Canada as a major global player in this flourishing industry.

Fabian Sanchez

Fabian Sanchez, Design Engineer – Additive Manufacturing, Siemens Canada Limited

Be sure not to miss keynote speaker Fabian Sanchez, Design Engineer – Additive Manufacturing, Siemens Canada Limited as he presents “Delivering End-to-End Solutions for Additive Manufacturing.”

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REGISTER NOW!
Click here to register online.

Agenda:
Click here to consult the program.

Date:
May 16, 2018

Location:
Place Bonaventure
800, rue De La Gauchetière Ouest
Montréal QC H5A 1G1

Cost:
$ 250 using promo code RQ3D18

 

Highlights of AMUG 2018

 The Additive Manufacturers User Group, AMUG to all concerned, held its 30th anniversary event last week at the historical Union Station Hotel in St. Louis Missouri and it did not disappoint. Attending AMUG is a unique experience plain and simple. The expertise on the floor at AMUG is unrivalled and the learning opportunities endless.

Picking a high point is hard but the roaring and dizzying speed of the NASCAR racetrack as our surprise destination on Award Night is hard to beat. The evening was highlighted with the announcement of Custom Prototypes’ Mark Antony Roman Helmut as the winner of the Technical Competition Advanced Finishing.

My friend and Canada Makes partner Hargurdeep (Deep) Singh, Director of Additive Manufacturing at CAD MicroSolutions Inc. said the following, “Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG) Conference 2018 was a fantastic event to connect with many end-users, engineers, business executives and pioneers of the Additive Industry. This event provided an excellent resource for learning about the future of 3D Printing and I would like to acknowledge Frank Defalco for representing Canada Makes at AMUG 2018. Canada Makes representation helped bring together many partners who are now moving forward in helping Canadian companies to enable innovation and leverage AM technologies.”

Deep was kind enough to share some of his finer photos taken during the event. See if you can spot Deep hidden is some of the pictures.

About Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG)
The Additive Manufacturing Users Group’s origins date back to the early 1990s when the founding industry users group was called 3D Systems North American Stereolithography Users Group, a users group solely focused on the advancement of stereolithography (SL) use with the owners and operators of 3D Systems’ equipment. Today, AMUG educates and supports users of all additive manufacturing technologies. The primary charter of the group remains the same, but its members are much more diversified, global and focused in advancing additive manufacturing technology for rapid manufacturing and prototyping.

With AMUG’s expanded range, operators/owners of any commercial technology — stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, DMD, DMLS, FDM, LS, SL, SLM, PolyJet, and more * — can benefit from the information exchange and professional network that AMUG offers. www.amug.com

Custom Prototypes repeats as winner at AMUG with metal Roman helmet

Canada Makes offers congratulation to our member Custom Prototypes for once again being awarded first place in the Advanced Finishing category of the AMUG Technical Competition in St. Louis for their metal 3D printed Roman helmet.

Learn more about the process Custom Prototypes used to fabricate the Mark Antony helmut here.
About Custom Prototypes
Based in Toronto and with more than 20 years experience Custom Prototypes is a small team of designers, engineers and fabricators who specialize in bringing ideas into tangible working prototypes. Their collaborative work environment is the benchmark for their innovative approach to tackling complex problems. www.customprototypes.ca

Additive Manufacturing 101-3: What is material extrusion?

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Material Extrusion (Image: 3D Hubs)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the fourth in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories, and then a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Material Extrusion

ISO/ASTM definition: “material extrusion, —an additive manufacturing process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice.”[1]

Material Extrusion can also be known as (in alphabetical order):

➢ Direct Ink Writing or DIW[2]

➢ Extrusion Freeform Fabrication or EFF[3]

➢ Fused Deposition Modeling‎ or FDM® (Stratasys Inc.)[4]

➢ Fused Filament Fabrication or FFF[5]

➢ Glass 3D Printing or G3DP[6]

➢ Liquid Deposition Modeling or LDM[7]

➢ Micropen Writing[8]

➢ Plastic Jet Printing or PJP (3D Systems Corporation)

➢ Robocasting or Robotic Deposition[9], [10]

In 1988, Scott Crump invented a new AM process based on candle wax and a hot glue gun while making a toy for his daughter in the kitchen. The next year he started the company Stratasys, which became one of the largest AM companies in the world. In 2005, in the United Kingdom, Adrian Bowyer at the University of Bath started the RepRap project[5] based on the technology that made Stratasys so successful. His goal was to be able to make use of expiring patents[4] that would make FFF available to everyone, and create an open source 3D printer that was capable of replicating rapidly (RepRap) itself, or at least make as many parts for itself as it could. This first open source printer was released in 2008 and inspired many companies to make their own versions based on the RepRap platform. One company, MakerBot, was founded in 2009 and later acquired by Stratasys in 2013. This open-source design along with the expired patents allowed hundreds of different printer designs and companies to emerge since then. This recent development has contributed to the public’s general awareness of AM technology, even though the core technology started over 30 years ago. Most desktop 3D printers in the world are of this type and are what most people think of when they think 3D printer.

Figure 1: Example of a material Extrusion system’s basic components[11]

The core principle of this technology is that any material that is in a semi-liquid or paste form can be pushed through a nozzle and used to draw the 2D cross-sections of a sliced 3D model. Similar to how a hot glue gun heats a rod of glue and the trigger selectively pushes the material through the nozzle, material extrusion works exactly the same way. The material that is extruded doesn’t need to be plastic or even heated. While the vast majority of these printers use a plastic like ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) or PLA (Polylactic acid), any material that can be pushed through a nozzle (heated or not) and afterwards retain its shape can be used. Other examples include cement[12], chocolate[13], ceramic pastes or slurries[9], metal clays and metal filled plastics[14], ground-up and blended food[15], or even biocompatible organic cellular scaffolding gel[16]. The technology is scalable and is only limited by nozzle size and supporting machine structure. This supporting machine structure can take many different shapes such as a delta robot configuration or multi-jointed robot arms[17]. This printer structure can also be built using traditional scaffolding structures to create some of the largest printers in the world. Two examples are a 2014 Chinese built 12m x 12m x 12m printer in the city of Qingdao, and a 2016 12m tall delta printer in the Italian town of Massa Lombarda, both of which are large enough to print a small house. There are plans to build printers that move on a rail system enabling an almost infinite build length in one direction[18]. Multiple print heads can be installed on the same machine thus enabling multi-material printing, but there can be challenges with calibration between heads; thus, more than 2 heads on a machine is rare.The greatest advantage of this process is the extensive range of materials it can use. Almost all types of thermoplastics can be used, from the standard plastics like ABS to more engineering plastic grades like nylon, all the way up to advanced engineering plastics like polyether ether ketone also known as PEEK. These plastics have superior dimensional stability and can be used as actual end-use parts like in the Boeing 787 where many parts (mostly air ducting) are 3D printed from FDM processes. The mechanics of this type of printing are fairly simple and easy to modify especially due to the availability of open source designs; thus people have taken these principles to print anything that can fit into a syringe or that can be made into a filament.Some disadvantages are that this process is slow as only one nozzle operates at a time and the entire layer must be subdivided into actual tool paths to trace out the whole 2D slice. This tool path causes the fill factor to be less than 100% due to geometric constraints and nozzle diameter[19]. Parts generally have anisotropic material properties, and the same part can exhibit different strengths depending on how it was printed[19]. Layer heights are generally larger than other AM processes and are thus more visible and contribute to a higher surface roughness. Support materials and structures need to be used, otherwise, considerable sagging can occur depending on geometry. Removing these supports is either a manual and labour intensive process, or a process which requires dissolving and rinsing of parts in a chemical bath of some sort. Generally, only one material is used, with one main material and one support material being quite common. Anything more than one material and support is rare, it usually requires specialised print heads or specialised calibration techniques.

References

[1] “ISO/ASTM 52900:2015(en), Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.

[2] Lewis J. A. and Gratson G. M., “Direct writing in three dimensions,” Materials Today, vol. 7, no. 7–8, pp. 32–39, Jul. 2004.

[3] Calvert P. D., Frechette J., and Souvignier C., “Gel mineralization as a Model for Bone Formation,” in MRS Proceedings, San Francisco, California, USA, 1998, vol. 520, pp. 305–401.

[4] Crump S. S., “Apparatus and method for creating three-dimensional objects,” U.S. Patent 5,121,329, 09-Jun-1992.

[5] Jones R., Haufe P., Sells E., Iravani P., Olliver V., Palmer C., and Bowyer A., “RepRap – the replicating rapid prototyper,” Robotica, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 177–191, Jan. 2011.

[6] Klein J., Stern M., Franchin G., Kayser M., Inamura C., Dave S., Weaver J. C., Houk P., Colombo P., Yang M., and Oxman N., “Additive Manufacturing of Optically Transparent Glass,” 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 92–105, Sep. 2015.

[7] Postiglione G., Natale G., Griffini G., Levi M., and Turri S., “Conductive 3D microstructures by direct 3D printing of polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites via liquid deposition modeling,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 76, pp. 110–114, Sep. 2015.

[8] Morissette S. L., Lewis J. A., Clem P. G., Cesarano III J., and Dimos D. B., “Direct-Write Fabrication of Pb(Nb,Zr,Ti)O 3 Devices: Influence of Paste Rheology on Print Morphology and Component Properties,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 2462–2468, Nov. 2001.

[9] Cesarano III J., Segalman R., and Calvert P. D., “Robocasting provides moldless fabrication from slurry deposition,” Ceramic Industry, vol. 148, no. 4, Business News Publishing, Troy, Michigan, USA, pp. 94–100, 1998.

[10] Cesarano III J. and Calvert P. D., “Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry,” U.S. Patent 6,027,326, 22-Feb-2000.

[11] Gibson I., Rosen D. W., and Stucker B., Additive Manufacturing Technologies. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010.

[12] Khoshnevis B., “Automated construction by contour crafting—related robotics and information technologies,” Automation in Construction, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 5–19, Jan. 2004.

[13] Li P., Mellor S., Griffin J., Waelde C., Hao L., and Everson R., “Intellectual property and 3D printing: a case study on 3D chocolate printing,” Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 322–332, Apr. 2014.

[14] Nickels L., “Crowdfunding metallurgy,” Metal Powder Report, Nov. 2015.

[15] Periard D., Schaal N., Schaal M., Malone E., and Lipson H., “Printing Food,” in Proceedings of the 18th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 2007, pp. 564–574.

[16] Mironov V., Boland T., Trusk T., Forgacs G., and Markwald R. R., “Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 157–161, Apr. 2003.

[17] Song X., Pan Y., and Chen Y., “Development of a Low-Cost Parallel Kinematic Machine for Multidirectional Additive Manufacturing,” Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 137, no. 2, p. 21005, Apr. 2015.

[18] Khoshnevis B., Bodiford M., Burks K., Ethridge E., Tucker D., Kim W., Toutanji H., and Fiske M., “Lunar Contour Crafting – A Novel Technique for ISRU-Based Habitat Development,” in 43rd American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, USA, 2005, vol. 13(1), no. January, pp. 5–19.

[19] Bagsik A. and Schöoppner V., “Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling Parts Manufactured with ULTEM 9085,” in Proceedings of the 69th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Plastics Engineers 2011 (ANTEC 2011), Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 2011, pp. 1294–1298.

CAD MicroSolutions Drives Canadian Innovation with Addition of BigRep Large-Format 3D Printers

BigRep ONE

Canada Makes partner CAD MicroSolutions Inc., a leading service provider and distributor of 3D technology in Canada, announced today that it has partnered with BigRep to bring commercial sales and distribution of their large-scale 3D printing solutions to Canada.

BigRep’s 3D printing solutions are a fitting addition to CAD MicroSolutions’ existing line of mechatronics design tools and 3D printing solutions, opening the gateway to a new dimension of 3D printing and manufacturing for businesses across Canada. BigRep’s innovative BigRep ONE and BigRep STUDIO 3D printers give engineers, architects and designers around the globe access to large-scale 3D printing at an affordable price point.

“We are very excited to expand our Additive Manufacturing Technology portfolio by adding the BigRep large-format 3D printers to our consulting, sales and technical support channels,” says Hargurdeep (Deep) Singh, Director of Additive Manufacturing at CAD MicroSolutions. “These German Engineered BigRep 3D FFF printers will enable innovation for Canadian companies and allow them to achieve a revolutionary print volume of 1.3m³ at an extremely competitive price.”

Based in Berlin, BigRep is a leading global provider of large-format 3D printing technology for industrial users. Their highly innovative team develops and manufactures the world’s largest 3D printers, revolutionizing design, prototyping and industrial production from the ground up.

“We are proud to be partnering with CAD MicroSolutions to reach even more Canadian businesses with our large-format 3D printing technology,” said Frank Marangell, President of BigRep America Inc. and Executive VP of Global Sales. “We are confident that with their experience and expertise, BigRep will be a key player in the AM space in Canada.”

CAD MicroSolutions is the largest Canadian value-added-reseller of BigRep 3D printing solutions, and will provide consultation, sales and support for BigRep technology across Canada starting immediately. To learn more about the capabilities of BigRep’s 3D printing technology and the range of applications it is suited for, visit www.cadmicro.com or call 1-888-401-5885.

About CAD MicroSolutions
CAD MicroSolutions, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, has been providing engineers, designers and manufacturers with 3D technology and training for the entire product development lifecycle for over 30 years. CAD MicroSolutions is uniquely positioned to help their clients enable innovation across Canada, selling and supporting 3D printing solutions, virtual and augmented reality, as well as design automation software, training and consultation to help clients in mechatronics innovate, design and succeed. For more information about CAD MicroSolutions, please visit www.cadmicro.com or call 1-888-401-5885.

For further information please contact Darren Gornall, dgornall@cadmicro.com, (416) 213-0533.

Canada Makes’ partners at AMUGexpo

This year is the 30th Annual Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG) Conference in St. Louis, Missouri April 8 – 12, 2018. The historic St. Louis Union Station is the 2018 AMUG Conference site and will be home to the conference activities.

“Canada Makes shares AMUG’s goals of educating and advancing the uses and applications of additive manufacturing technologies. This will be the first time Canada Makes attends AMUG and I am looking forward to a great learning opportunity and meeting the hands-on users of AM,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes.

The conference features AMUGexpo, which offers a unique opportunity for industry-specific vendors to display their products and services. Canada Makes members are well represented this year so take the time to visit and learn more about these great companies.

Jesse Garant Metrology Center Booth 71
Jesse Garant Metrology Center is a specialized part inspection company providing NDT & Metrology services using industrial imaging equipment. Our service allows manufacturers to make a qualified decision regarding their part at key stages throughout a product’s life-cycle. Part inspection services include: Industrial CT Scanning, Industrial X-ray, 3D Scanning. Visit https://jgarantmc.com

TIGER-VAC INC. booth 55 Tiger-Vac
Tiger-Vac’s explosion proof vacuum cleaners are specifically designed to safely collect and neutralize volatile plastic and metal powders from potentially resulting in a fire or explosion. Vacuums used in these hazardous locations are NRTL certified (Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory) and recognized by OSHA. Legally certified for use in Class I Group D and Class II Groups E, F and G Division 1 and 2 atmospheres. Various models and options are available such as dry and wet mix, coalescing filter elements, mist arrester pack and degassing valve. Models are available in pneumatic and electrically operated. For more about Tiger-Vac visit www.tiger-vac.com/index.aspx

EOS North America suite D4 EOS
EOS is the global technology leader for industrial 3D printing of metals and polymers. Founded in 1989, the independent company is a pioneer and innovator for holistic solutions in additive manufacturing. Like no other company, EOS is mastering the interaction of laser and powder material and provides all essential elements for industrial 3D printing. System, material and process parameters are intelligently harmonized to ensure a reliable high quality of parts. EOS’s machines, materials, and expertise help customers create their competitive edge and let their designs now drive their manufacturing. For more information, visit www.eos.info.

GE Additive suite D7 AP&C
GE Additive is part of GE, the world’s Digital Industrial Company, transforming industry with software-defined machines and solutions that are connected, responsive and predictive. GE Additive includes additive machine providers Concept Laser and Arcam, along with materials provider AP&C.;
GE’s relationships with Arcam and Concept Laser has complemented GE’s existing material science and additive capabilities, enabling the development of new service applications across multiple GE businesses and allowing us to earn numerous patents. GE Additive is committed to leading the industry through world-class machines, materials and services—accelerating innovations across industries and helping the world work smarter, faster and more efficiently. For more information, visit www.geadditive.com.

Renishaw suite D3 
Renishaw is one of the world’s leading engineering and scientific technology companies, with expertise in precision measurement and healthcare. The company supplies products and services used in applications as diverse as jet engine and wind turbine manufacture, through to 3D printing, dentistry and brain surgery.
The Renishaw Group currently has more than 70 offices in 35 countries, with over 4,000 employees, of which 2,700 people are employed within the UK. For more information, visit www.renishaw.com.

Tekna booth P19 
Tekna’s powder division manufactures spherical metallic powders for additive manufacturing applications (mainly L-PBF, EB, and DED). Among other materials, Tekna produces spheres of Ti64 and AlSiMg. These spheres are wire atomized using Tekna RF-plasma proprietary process. These spheres are know for their superior flowability, high density, and purity. Tekna also produces various other powders for AM, including refractory metal spheres such as tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum. Tekna’s equipment division manufactures plasma equipment dedicated to producing spherical powders for AM. Such equipment will be on display in our booth during AMUG. For more information, please visit www.tekna.com

About Additive Manufacturing Users Group
The Additive Manufacturing Users Group’s origins date back to the early 1990s when the founding industry users group was called 3D Systems North American Stereolithography Users Group, a users group solely focused on the advancement of stereolithography (SL) use with the owners and operators of 3D Systems’ equipment. Today, AMUG educates and supports users of all additive manufacturing technologies. The primary charter of the group remains the same, but its members are much more diversified, global and focused in advancing additive manufacturing technology for rapid manufacturing and prototyping. http://www.amug.com

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AON3D joins Canada Makes

AON3DCanada Makes is very pleased to welcome Montreal based AON3D as a member. The team at AON3D developed a line of 3D printers that is a big step up for Canada’s additive manufacturing sector.

“As a Canadian OEM in the additive manufacturing space, we’re obviously thrilled to join Canada Makes. Having an initiative that connects the national AM ecosystem is invaluable, especially at a time where adoption of these technologies can be so greatly accelerated through collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders. We hope our 3d printing technology and deep knowledge of material science will add a lot of value in this regard, as ‘lowering the barrier to innovation’ has always been a major driver for us,” said Leif Tiltins, AON3D Head of Business Development.

“With the launch of the all-new M2, AON3D’s line of 3D printers continues to be in a class of its own,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. “What is great about the M2 is its engineered and manufactured in Canada. I feels this is the new wave of made in Canada manufacturing we are seeing happen.”

 

AON3D’s mission has always been to facilitate creating parts that would otherwise be unfeasible – either financially, or technically. The M2 provides the essential features required for printing high performance polymers, at a fraction of the cost of comparable industrial machines.

Fully NAFTA compliant, and available to ship all around the globe, the AON-M2 supports the strongest 3D printable plastics available, including high-strength, chemically resistant, and flexible varieties.

Feel free to contact one of their engineers to discuss how the AON-M2 3D printer fits into your business application needs. hello@aon3d.com

Additive Manufacturing 101-2: What is directed energy deposition?

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Directed Energy Deposition (Image: 3D Hubs)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the third in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories, and then a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Directed Energy Deposition

ISO/ASTM definition: “directed energy deposition, —an additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting as they are being deposited. “Focused thermal energy” means that an energy source (e.g., laser, electron beam, or plasma arc) is focused to melt the materials being deposited.”[1]

Directed Energy Deposition or DED can also be known as (in alphabetical order):

➢   3D Laser Cladding[2]

➢   Cold Gas Dynamic Spray[3]*

➢   Cold Spray[4]*

➢   Direct Laser Deposition or DLD[5]

➢   Direct Laser Fabrication[5]

➢   Direct Metal Deposition or DMD® (DM3D Technology, LLC)[5]

➢   Directed Light Fabrication or DLF[5]

➢   Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing or EBAM ™ (Sciaky, Inc.)

➢   Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication or EBF3[6]

➢   Focused Ion Beam Direct Writing or FIBDW[7]

➢   Metal Powder Application or MPA (Hermle Maschinenbau GmbH)

➢   Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition or LCVD[8]

➢   Laser Consolidation or LC [9]

➢   Laser Deposition Welding[10]

➢   Laser Engineered Net Shaping or LENS® (Sandia National Labs)[5], [11]

➢   Laser Metal/Melting Deposition or LMD[5]

➢   Laser Powder Forming[12]

➢   Laser Rapid Forming[5]

➢   Powder Fusion Welding[13]

➢   Shape Welding[14]

➢   Shape Deposition Manufacturing or SDM[15]

➢   Three-Dimensional Welding[16]

➢   Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing or WAAM[17]

*An additive manufacturing process in which kinetic energy is used to fuse materials by plastic deformation as they are being deposited. “Kinetic energy” means the energy contained by the material that is being deposited at high velocity and is released at the time the material contacts a solid surface.

From 1994-1997 in New Mexico USA, Sandia National Laboratories developed a new AM technology which they called LENS. It differed quite a bit from all other AM technologies at the time and spawned a number of similar processes like DMD, which was commercialized in 2002 by POM Group based in Michigan USA. These other processes use many different names in an attempt to differentiate themselves; DLD, LC, LMD, DLF and more, but can be understood the same as LENS. LCVD is a completely different process from LENS and has its origins in the 1980s, but it wasn’t used to build actual 3D parts until the early 1990s. Three-dimensional welding has its roots in 1960s Germany where parts were built up using welders, but it wasn’t specifically used in AM until in the 1990s[14]. In 2002, engineers at NASA developed a system that uses electron beams and solid wire feedstock to create parts that could potentially be made in space without gravity called EBF3. Since 2013 researchers have been investigating the use of cold spray techniques in AM as an alternative to thermally based fusion methods.

 

Figure 1: Example of a directed energy deposition system’s basic components, LENS (top) and EBF3 (below)[18]

Directed energy deposition processes look very different between each method, but the premise is the same in each case. First, there is a focused area of intense energy, usually a thermal energy source like a laser, electron beam, or TIG welding torch. A feedstock material is introduced into that intense energy area causing it to bond to the surrounding material. This feedstock can be introduced either through blowing powder into that area like with the LENS or cold spray process, by pushing a solid wire into that area like with EBF3 and WAAM, or by introducing a special gas into the build chamber like with LCVD or FIBDW. The bonding mechanism varies in each process as well. In LENS and related methods, the powder enters into a melted pool of material and initially sticks to it and then melts to join the melt pool which will then cool and solidify. With EBF3 and WAAM, the wire melts and binds to the previous layers and then cools and solidifies. With LCVD and FIBDW, either a laser or an ion beam heats a spot on the build surface to a high enough temperature to thermally decompose a halide gas compound. This special gas then deposits half of itself onto the build surface, while the other half combines with a reducing chemical in the air like hydrogen to form a secondary gas compound. With the cold spray process, material is deposited at very high velocities onto the build surface and then plastically deforms and bonds onto the part.

Several different processes fall into this category, so advantages depend on the process. With the powder blowing method, powders can be changed or mixed mid-build thus creating multiple materials in a build, even creating a gradient between two different materials in the same build. This can also occur in LCVD or FIBDW by evacuating the build chamber from one gas, and putting in a different one thus making multiple materials possible. LENS type processes are able to aid in the repair of damaged parts that normally could not have been repaired using traditional methods. It can roughly add material to the damaged areas which are then cleaned up and machined to tolerance afterwards. Some of these processes like EBF3 and WAAM can also be used to develop near net shape parts that can then be machined to final tolerance without the traditional waste associated with subtractive manufacturing from a solid block. Some of these processes can also be used in space without the need for gravity like EBF3 and cold spray.

Again disadvantages range between processes. All of these processes require material to be deposited one spot at a time, and cannot do entire layers all at one time; tool paths are needed to complete each layer. Consequently build speeds are limited and somewhat slow. LCVD is especially slow due to the decomposition process and limited material deposited by it. These processes do not lend themselves to create support structures, so certain geometries with overhangs may not be created. Resolutions are generally very low and have a rough surface finish that may need post-processing like machining to get tight tolerances.

References

[1]    “ISO/ASTM 52900:2015(en), Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.

[2]    Murphy M. L., Steen W. M., and Lee C., “The Rapid Manufacture of Metallic Components by Laser Surface Cladding,” in Proceedings of the Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering Conference (LANE’94), Erlangen, Germany, 1994, vol. 2, pp. 803–814.

[3]    Sova A., Grigoriev S., Okunkova A., and Smurov I., “Potential of cold gas dynamic spray as additive manufacturing technology,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 69, no. 9–12, pp. 2269–2278, Dec. 2013.

[4]    Lupoi R. and O’Neill W., “Deposition of metallic coatings on polymer surfaces using cold spray,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 7, pp. 2167–2173, Dec. 2010.

[5]    Gu D. D., Meiners W., Wissenbach K., and Poprawe R., “Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms,” International Materials Reviews, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 133–164, May 2012.

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Canada Makes announces finalists for its 3D Challenge

Montreal March 21, 2018 – Canada Makes announced its five finalist for the 3D Challenge at the Design for Additive Manufacturing workshop at McGill.

The finalist are; Lisa Brock University of Waterloo of Waterloo, Haley Butler University of Prince Edward Island, Gitanjali Shanbhag also of the University of Waterloo, Ken Nsiempba McGill University and Nathaniel Claus Emily Carr University of Art and Design. Congratulation to theses five students for their innovative design and concepts. They will be receiving a prize of $1,000 and a a chance at a one-year paid internship.

The theme of the Challenge Design solutions for a sustainable future Canada Makes invited student designers to participate in the 3D Design Competition with a focus on creating innovative tools or products that reduce our environmental footprint using additive manufacturing in tandem with conventional manufacturing approaches.

 

Lisa Brock proposed the design of biodegradable packaging made from mushroom roots and agricultural waste using binder jetting additive manufacturing. The packaging design was created by optically 3D scanning the object. The data was imported into a computer aided design (CAD) software to create the custom packaging structure conforming to the unique geometry, and a lattice structure was added to reduce the amount of material required.

Haley Butler is working on developing a potato starch-based plastic 􀂡lament that is suitable for 3D printing. Starch-based plastics have the potential to be used as an environmentally friendly material for additive manufacturing.

Approximately 10% of materials used in additive manufacturing can be recycled into new plastics, and the rest are disposed. The options for disposal are landfills and incineration, both of which increase the amount of greenhouse gases. Therefore, new biobased biodegradable materials must be developed to decrease the negative environmental impacts of these additive manufacturing plastics.

Gitanjali Shanbhag’s aim is to introduce light-weighting to helicopter tail designs by proposing a modi􀂡ed design, for the tail boom of Airbus H135 as an example, through Additive Manufacturing(AM).

The material of interest is aluminum 2024-T3 since it is a readily available lightweight material and is cost-effective. In the optimized design, material is only applied where the loads on the tail boom are concentrated, resulting in a hollow, truss-like structure that reduces the boom weight by 63%. The results are validated using the simulation software.

Ken Nsiempba submitted a redesign of the internal boat tail support bracket to be 3D printed. This bracket is mainly used during ground processing at the base of the Atlas V payload fairing (Atlas V is an active expendable launch system of the Atlas rocket family).

What makes the new bracket’s design special is its use of different manufacturing technics.

 

Nathaniel Claus offered a ONE BIKE concept that allows bikes to transcend limitations set by current production trends through a convertible parts system. The cycling industry moves forward at an alarming rate, more so than the automobile industry. There are 200 million bikes produced every year. That’s 5 bikes to every car produced annually and more than enough for every person born in that same year. As a result, high-end bikes are becoming increasingly expensive and lower end bikes are becoming less reliable in order to keep their prices down. This concept creates an alternative to users accumulating additional bikes saving money and reducing a rider’s impact on this planet.

Canada Makes would like to thank all those who participated and invite them to once again to try next year when we hold Canada Makes second 3D Challenge or try our current 3D Challenge open to all Canadian residents. The National 3D Printed Musical Instrument Challenge.

In the coming weeks, we will announce the overall winner of this years Canada Makes 3D Challenge.

We would like to thank our sponsors for their support.

 

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