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ICTC Releases Additive Manufacturing: The Impending Talent Paradigm

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The Information and Communications Technology Council (ICTC) announces the release of its latest report, Additive Manufacturing: The Impending Talent Paradigm.

Additive Manufacturing (AM) (often referred to as 3D Printing) is a transformative technology that is dramatically reshaping the manufacturing industry—much in the way Uber redefined the taxi industry and Netflix disrupted the media industry.

AM is rapidly growing worldwide and is now fully recognized for its massive potential in almost every market, including automotive, aerospace, medical, and robotics, just to name a few. With new modeling techniques, applications, and a variety of printable materials, AM has transitioned, in a short number of years, from a prototype technology to an integral pillar of automated manufacturing.

It is projected that the AM market will be around $17.7 billion globally in three years, and that in the next five years the manufacturing industry will look substantially different than it does today. Such rapid change brings both opportunities and challenges to businesses, workers and policymakers.

Skilled talent is the essence of any high performing economy. The rise and adoption of AM across all industries has increased the demand for highly skilled talent in this space and has left businesses searching for better talent development and recruitment strategies.

The evidence-based analysis and recommendations in this report are intended to inform policymakers, industry and educators about the labour market impact of AM development across Canada, the state of the talent supply and demand, and how best to engage, attract and retain the necessary highly-skilled talent.  The overarching goal is to place Canada in a position to meet its digital talent requirements to be competitive in the global digital economy.

“Additive manufacturing is the new frontier for advanced and smarter industries, raising the prospects of a more competitive economy. In this rapidly developing landscape, tomorrow’s talent strategies will need to be as distributive as the technologies transforming the industries.” said Namir Anani, ICTC President & CEO.

For any questions, please contact Maryna Ivus, Senior Research Analyst, at m.ivus@ictc-ctic.ca.

To view the report, please click here.

Burloak Advances Heat Exchanger Technology

Paris, France – June 20, 2017 – Burloak Technologies, a leading Canadian additive manufacturing company, and part of the family of Samuel companies, has announced the successful completion of the first stage in the development of a new heat exchanger technology. This additive manufactured design demonstrated 44 per cent lower thermal resistance over existing designs in a controlled test. “After extensive research and many months of design simulation, the successful completion of the live experiment on Burloak’s test bed validates our design hypothesis.” stated company president Peter Adams. “We will now apply these design principals to delivering custom, thermal-management solutions to our customers.”

The objective for electronic enclosures cooling is to maintain the temperature of the semiconductor components inside within their operating range. It is typical that a few components generate the majority of heat, and it is those components that the cooling design should target. Additive manufacturing enables intricate cooling channels to be created in such a manner that maximizes heat dissipation while also targeting specific areas of the enclosure.

Burloak’s research team has modelled, built and tested many, novel geometries that can only be produced using additive manufacture and have developed a comprehensive, engineering database to create the design rules that enable the heat transfer improvements. Burloak will be displaying several of the new heat exchanger designs at the 2017 Paris Air Show and will have experts on hand to discuss specific projects at the Industry Canada Showcase Hall 3/D70 and at Samuel’s Chalet (by invitation B19).

To set up a meeting during PAS2017 to discuss your business requirements, please contact: aerospace@samuel.com or sales@burloaktech.com.

ABOUT BURLOAK TECHNOLOGIES

Burloak Technologies, part of the family of Samuel companies, is a leading supplier of highly-engineered additive manufacturing solutions for clients with demanding applications in high-tech industries worldwide. Burloak delivers high quality, lightweight, fully functional additive manufactured parts for low to medium volume applications across a range of industries including: space, aerospace, defense, energy, medical, automotive, and transportation. In-house engineering, manufacturing and metrology capabilities make Burloak one of the few full-service suppliers in the industry. Together with its clients, Burloak works to re-create component and process specifications and move additive manufacturing from a prototyping technology to a certified production technology. www.burloaktech.com

ABOUT SAMUEL, SON & CO.

Founded in 1855, Samuel, Son & Co. is a family-owned and operated, integrated network of metal manufacturing, processing and distribution divisions. With over 4,800 employees and 100+ facilities, Samuel provides seamless access to metals, industrial products and related value-added services. Supporting over 40,000 customers, we leverage our industry expertise, breadth of experience and the passion of our people to help drive success for North American business – one customer at a time. www.samuel.com

TIGER-VAC joins Canada Makes

Canada Makes is pleased to announce Tiger-VAC as its newest member. For over 40 years Tiger-Vac has been an industry Tiger-Vacleader in industrial vacuum cleaner systems for controlled environments and hazardous locations. Tiger-Vac specialises in vacuum cleaner technology for the additive manufacturing industry.

“SAFETY HAS NO COMPROMISE is not just Tiger-Vac’s motto, it’s how we care for our customers,” stated Paul Miller, Vice President Sales TIGER-VAC INTL INC.

Tiger-Vac Model C-10 EX (IT-63L) CFE HEPA in action

“The importance of vacuum cleaner technology to Canada’s additive manufacturing supply chain cannot be understated,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. “Canada Makes welcomes Tiger-Vac’s health & safety experience to our network and we look forward to working with them on educating Canada’s AM sector on this essential component.”

“We are deeply honoured to be invited to contribute our expertise to Canada Makes and its’ members. Together as Partners in Prevention we can work to ensure the safety of the brilliant minds that are paving the way to the future, ” added Miller.

As specialists in vacuum cleaner technology for the 3D industry, Tiger-Vac offers a complete line of (NRTL legally certified) explosion proof portable vacuum cleaners and dust collection systems. These units are certified for use in Division I, Class II, Group E and (D, F & G) atmospheres such as aluminum, titanium, brass and other combustible metals. They are offered in pneumatic as well as electrically operated units, which are available in both single and three phase systems. You can choose from various models and options such as dry only, wet mix immersion separator, HEPA filtration as well as a detachable recovery tank (DT), which allows for the easy disposal of recovered materials.

Certified equipment combined with good housekeeping practices are essential in maintaining a safe work environment.

About Tiger-Vac
With over forty years of experience, Tiger-Vac has successfully established itself in the international market as a manufacturer of high quality Explosion Proof, Industrial and Cleanroom Vacuum Cleaner Systems. Tiger-Vac has accomplished this by listening to its clients and responding to their needs. Their specialty lies in their ability to tailor their vacuum cleaners to meet  specialized needs. Their team of professionals are eager to help you, and as manufacturers, they are able to build a vacuum cleaner specially to meet your needs. Visit Tiger-Vac

Certified ISO 9001:2008 Tiger-vac strives to assure quality, not only in their products, but also in the materials received from  suppliers. They take pride in customer service and sales department staff are always on hand to serve you.

About Canada Makes
Canada Makes, a CME initiative, is a network of private, public, academic, and non-profit entities dedicated to promoting the adoption and development of advanced and additive manufacturing (AM) in Canada. It is an enabler and accelerator of AM-adoption in Canada.

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Additive manufacturing in archeology

An archeological sensation is being copied true to the original using 3D printing

Archeological sensation from the Hallstatt culture: The Rider of Unlingen from the 7th Century B.C.E. as discovered (image source: © State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board)

3D printing the cultural history of humanity? Absolutely. 3D production methods are breaking new ground all the time. The unwritten motto of 3D experts seems to be the desire to continually test the limits of the technology. 3D printing is even opening up totally new possibilities for documenting and copying artifacts in the field of archeology. The latest example is a replica of the figure of a bronze horse rider from an early Celtic chieftain’s grave near Unlingen, Germany in the Biberach region of Baden-Württemberg. Using one of its Mlab cusing Concept Laser has produced a faithful copy of this prehistoric rider.An object nearly 2,800 years old is being printed out of powder.

3D metal printing is making it possible to utilize archeological discoveries in new ways. By creating a faithful replica, original objects can be evaluated scientifically and replicas made available for exhibitions at the same time. Cultural history is taking shape in 3D printers. Holding the Rider of Unlingen in your hand lets you look back at 28 centuries of cultural history.

The original: Rider of Unlingen (image source: © State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board, Ginger Neumann)

The scientific implications of the “Rider of Unlingen”
The Rider of Unlingen is a burial object found in a Celtic chieftain’s grave from the Hallstatt culture. This bronze statuette of a rider on a double horse was located in a wagon grave in Unlingen, Germany which had already been robbed in ancient times. The broken edges of the incomplete legs of the horse indicate that the statuette was originally mounted to another object which is no longer preserved. This could have been the top of a bronze lid, the base of a larger bronze vessel or furniture, a wagon or a yoke. The other burial objects date the figurine to the 8th or 7th Century B.C.E. Figurative depictions from this time period are extremely rare in southern Germany. The Rider of Unlingen represents one of the oldest depictions of a horse rider north of the Alps. This figurine is a unique early Celtic piece in Central Europe.

The “Rider of Unlingen” 3D project
The transition from molding to additive manufacturing opens up new prospects for scientific evaluation in the field of archeology, as well as the exhibition of objects in several different places at the same time. Until just a few years ago, discoveries could only be reproduced through direct molding, a process which always risks damaging the original. Through the use of additive 3D technology, it is now possible to produce copies without contacting the original at all.

The bronze Rider of Unlingen being replicated through the powder bed-based laser melting of metal (image source: Concept Laser)

To digitize the “Rider of Unlingen” object from the Hallstatt culture, a specialized process known as x-ray computer tomography (CT) was used. The bronze horse rider was x-rayed three dimensionally and evaluated using the “VG Studio Max 3.0” software from Volume Graphics. The STL data obtained through this process makes it possible to transfer the industrial 3D printing process of today over to applications in the field of archeology.

A high level of detail: The 3D-printed copy of the Rider of Unlingen (image source: © State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board)

In the meantime, the technical progress being made in terms of material variety and printing precision is enormous. For the 3D printing job, Concept Laser provided the Baden-Württemberg State Office for the Preservation of Monuments with its LaserCUSING technology in the form of an Mlab cusing. Concept Laser’s material engineers also found a bronze alloy similar to the original: a modern copper-tin alloy with a density and specific weight approximating those of the artifact from the 8th/7th Century B.C.E. The precise percentages of copper and tin could still be determined using x-ray fluorescence analysis. This is how the “Rider of Unlingen” was printed in bronze true to the original. Visually and tactilely, the reproduction horse rider is on par with the original piece.

Outlook
The additive manufacturing of faithful replicas through 3D printing is opening up new prospects for the field of archeology, making discovered metal objects available for scientific purposes. At the same time, copies can be exhibited to museum visitors. Essentially, multiple copies of historical discoveries can be printed out and used, where only experts would be able to tell the difference through material analysis, as the production process uses powder of modern origin. Even the issue of re-engineering isn’t taboo – theoretically, it should even be possible to reconstruct heavily damaged objects in the future. These objects would then have the same shape as the original production, enabling the destructive traces of history on them to be erased. Artifacts from humanity’s past give us a glimpse of our cultural history, and 3D printing makes it possible to experience this history in a tangible way.

Summary
The implications of additive 3D printing for archeological artifacts and discoveries:

  • Archeological discoveries with delicate and complex structures can be reproduced highly accurately
  • The 3D printing process enables the contact-less reproduction of artifacts without damaging them
  • Replicas are absolutely accurate in every detail and faithful to the original
  • Replicas can be made accessible to museums while the originals remain in archives for research purposes
  • High density, comparable feel and high surface quality
  • Considerably shortened development time and expense for mold-less replicas of unique objects 
  • No tools to buy, less waste
  • Possibility of re-engineering in the case of broken objects.

(image source: © State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board)

Click here to read an interview with Nicole Ebinger-Rist, head conservator at the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board and doctoral candidate at the Stuttgart State Academy of Art and Design: “You’ve got a cultural-historically relevant copy in your hands and are looking at 28 centuries gone by. It’s simply overwhelming. Whole new possibilities are being opened up to curators, conservators and scientists.”

Case Study: Topology Optimisation & Additive Manufacturing of Actuator Support Fitting

The following is a case study of an aircraft bracket built on an EOS M280 in Aluminum AlSi10Mg optimized with Altair to improve the original design. The geometries used can only be achieved through Additive Manufacturing (AM).

Finished aircraft fitting

This is a great case study because of the re-design methodology enabled by solidThinking Inspire which allowed for the consideration of up to 7 attachment points instead of the original 2.   It is a good example of the flexibility and exploration that “Inspire” allows when a re-design is being considered.  The example of aircraft fitting re-design is really well done in this case because it emphasizes the AM post-processing (hot isostatic pressing + bead blasting)… more

Full case study here Altair-AMAERO-Case-Study.pdf

About Altair:
Altair’s corporate culture thrives on seeking out business and technology firsts to radically change the way organizations design

Altair

products and make decisions.  Founded in 1985, Altair is headquartered in Troy Michigan with regional operations throughout 22 countries and a staff of more than 2,000 innovative employees.
For more information about Altair visit their website.

Seeing Logistics In 3D: The Democratization Of Manufacturing

By 
From hearing aids to jet engines, 3D printing is revolutionizing the world of manufacturing. How will commerce change when thousands of products, from cell phones to blenders, are customizable? Even though 3D printing is a 30-year-old technology, we’re just scratching the surface of where additive manufacturing will take us, writes Alan Amling, vice president of corporate strategy for UPS.

Of all the ways 3D printing will change the world, the democratization of manufacturing is perhaps the most important. Think of it as the Uberization of manufacturing, where supply can be accessed anywhere in the world to produce goods at the click of button. This is a once-in-a-generation logistics opportunity, as so-called additive manufacturing will optimize the time and cost of making and delivering goods. Mass customization will be the new normal.

So what does this mean for the future of logistics?

Modern delivery and manufacturing

We’ll see more direct-to-person manufacturing as well as delivery. Physical stores will be reserved for generic goods, not items customized to the individual. Hybrid customization has enormous potential for logisticians. Imagine thousands of products from cell phones to blenders, each made with a common core but customizable covering.

Third-party logistics providers are uniquely suited to move these items. Logistics companies like UPS would simply store the common core in their warehouse, print the custom piece and finish final assembly near the point of consumption.

This would also disrupt service parts logistics. Right now, companies make and store hundreds of thousands of critical parts around the world at tremendous expense just on the off-chance that they’ll be needed for an emergency repair. In the future, these slow-moving parts will be stored virtually and printed on demand.

As a result, import and export costs – especially important to small businesses – will plummet dramatically.

As companies begin to take advantage of designing parts for 3D printing, the manufacturing industry will re-invent itself. Machines designed to construct a specific product will give way to 3D printers capable of making many different items.

This will be the sparkplug for efficiency across supply chains. It will revolutionize how we get items to your doorstep. And it will forever alter how you search for and purchase goods every day.

Even though 3D printing is a 30-year-old technology, we’re just scratching the surface of where additive manufacturing will take us. These printers are no longer reserved solely for prototyping and product design. We’ve moved beyond trinkets and souvenirs to items like hearing aids and aircraft parts, proving this is no fad.

3D printing demands

In addition, the demand for 3D printers, materials and services will surpass $10 billion by 2018, the consulting firm found. Such promise is why UPS recently partnered with software company SAP to expedite the manufacturing and delivery of 3D-printed parts.

Customers can go online and place an order through the Fast Radius website and these items will be printed either at a UPS Store location or printing facility connected to our air hub in Louisville, Kentucky – in as little as a day.

This effectively creates end-to-end industrial manufacturing. And we expect these efforts to go global in the near future.

Moving beyond logistics, however, 3D printing will change the way we think. It will change how future generations learn and see the world. This technology can now keep pace with anything we imagine. We’re no longer forced to innovate in a world shackled to existing infrastructure.

If you can think it, you can do it.

This article is part of UPS Longitudes’ Routes to the Future series, which explores the business and technology trends that will shape our world in the next 10 years. 

Alan Amling is vice president of corporate strategy for UPS. He previously oversaw marketing efforts for UPS’s global logistics and distribution services.

Mazak joins Canada Makes

Canada Makes is pleased to welcome Mazak Canada as its newest Leadership level partner. Mazak has been contributing to the Mazakdevelopment of the machine tool industry as a leading global company since 1919 and adding their expertise is a big plus to our network.

“Mazak Canada is excited to be a partner in the Canada Makes Network. As a leader in Additive / Subtractive Direct Energy Deposition technology, we strive to be at the forefront of this manufacturing evolution,” said Ray Buxton,
 General Manager
Mazak Corporation Canada. “Being part of the Canada Makes network will allow us to work closer with industry partners and allow us to better support this emerging technology as it develops into a mainstream manufacturing process.”

MAZAK VC500 5X AM MACHINE

Mazak VC500 5X AM hybrid machine

Mazak currently produces three distinct models of Additive / Subtractive equipment. The VC500 5x AM – entry level machine for colleges, universities and research laboratories. The Integrex i200S AM and the Variaxis J-600/5x WAAM wire feed deposition machine.

“I’m really looking forward to seeing the capabilities of the Mazak hybrid additive / subtractive systems,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. ”Canada Makes wants our manufacturing sector to have state-of-the-art tools and Mazak is a partner that can help achieve this.”

Save the date of October 19th as Canada Makes is looking forward to co-hosting a workshop at Mazak’s Technology Centre in Cambridge, Ontario. The event will showcase Direct Energy Deposition, Additive / Subtractive technology featuring the Mazak VC500 5X AM machine. More details on the event will be forthcoming.

About Mazak: Canada Technology Centre
Located in Cambridge, Ontario, the Canada Technology Centre is one of Mazak’s eight Technology Centers in North America. The facility enables Mazak to work closely with their customers throughout Canada to generate the most innovative ideas for increasing productivity, efficiency and equipment utilization.

The Canada Technology Centre helps optimize customers’ part-processing operations by providing:

  • Access to the latest Mazak machine tool technology for testing new product solutions
  • Process and application engineering
  • Training facilities and educational seminars

Collaboration opportunities with cutting tool, workholding and automation partners to develop new manufacturing solutions.
Please visit www.mazakcanada.com or call 800-668-5449 for more information.

About Canada Makes
Canada Makes, a CME initiative, is a network of private, public, academic, and non-profit entities dedicated to promoting the adoption and development of advanced and additive manufacturing (AM) in Canada. It is an enabler and accelerator of AM-adoption in Canada.

Jesse Garant Metrology Center is re-defining the future of service based part inspection

Jesse Garant Metrology Center (USA & Canada) announced that it has expanded its operations to accommodate the growing demand for high volume part inspection for pre-production and production validation. With investments in new equipment and improved infrastructure, including state of the art industrial computed tomography systems for inspecting large parts, their enhanced capabilities solidify their position as leaders within the nondestructive testing and metrology part inspection services industry.

Two 450kv CT Systems at Jesse Garant Metrology Center

JGMC 450 systems (Jesse Garant Metrology Center)

As part of a five year, $15 million roll-out investment in technology, Jesse Garant Metrology Center’s latest expansion includes a more diverse range of advanced imaging systems. The expansion includes a wider range of Industrial CT systems for improved inspection capabilities of industrial parts, digital x-ray systems for high volume part sorting, and new 3D scanning equipment for improved data capture of external features. “Our services are not only to provide our customers with the essential data they need to make qualified decisions, but to help meet the growing demand for larger scale part inspection projects, and continue to be a supporting role in the advancement of industry” says Jesse Garant, President.

With three locations within Michigan and Ontario, the company’s centrally located labs primarily serve as an essential hub for the automotive and aerospace industries. Through this investment, the company will continue to be the largest Industrial CT scanning service provider in North America with the greatest diversity of inspection systems available today. “This expansion means we’re able to easily adapt to industry and meet the challenges of part inspection,” adds Garant.

With clients ranging from local businesses to multinational corporations, the company has undergone steady expansion to meet demands from manufacturers around the globe. Last year, Jesse Garant Metrology Center was recognized as the 64th fastest growing business in Canada and 2nd in Windsor-Essex by PROFIT 500 and was also a finalist for Ontario Exporter of the Year. 

Canada Makes applauds this announcement from our partners at Jesse Garant Metrology Centre.

About Jesse Garant Metrology Center

Jesse Garant Metrology Center is a globally recognized part inspection company, providing NDT and Metrology services using advanced imaging equipment. The company specializes in industrial CT scanning, industrial x-ray, and 3D scanning, with locations in Windsor, ON and Dearborn, MI. For more information, please contact 1-844-JGARANT or visit https://jgarantmc.com.

Taking the Lead in Additive Manufacturing conference: A great success

May 31st saw more than 200 industry professionals attend the Taking the Lead in Additive Manufacturing conference in Boucherville, Québec. The day’s sessions included both International and National leaders in additive manufacturing. This was the third annual Réseau Quebec-3D (RQ3D) conference organized jointly by Canada Makes, CRIQ, PRIMA and CRITM.

The knowledge shared by the day’s speakers was both instructive and well suited for the business professionals on hand. The day started with a video message from the Honourable Navdeep Singh Bains, Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development, followed by the day’s keynote, Greg Morris of GE Additive, and international speakers M. Jalel Nadji, Application Engineer Materialise USA, M. Daan A.J. Kersten, CEO Additive Industries from The Netherlands, Alexandre Lahaye AddUp (Micheline-Fives) France.

Greg Morris GE Additive, Daan Kersten Additive Industries, Alexandre Lahaye AddUp (Micheline-Fives), Jalel Nadji Materialise

Of note was Greg Morris response to a question from the audience about where Canada additive efforts should focus? Canada should really be developing a supply chain that can add more value to its natural resource mineral extraction sector. Afterwards, the audience was treated to a surprise video featuring Cassidy Silbernagel, which lead into Daan Kertens presentation. Cassidy is a two-time winner of Additive Industries Design for Additive Manufacturing Challenge. You can view the video here.

During last year’s event RQ3D and Canada Makes signed a collaborative agreement designed to promote 3D printing and help Canadian manufacturers integrate this new technology. Denis Hardy, President & CEO Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec (CRIQ), said “this conference proves that the strong alliance forged last year between RQ3D and Canada Makes is leading the push in the adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) across Canada.”

“I am very grateful to have been invited to speak at this conference. Canada Makes and RQ3D put together a great agenda with world renowned leaders in additive manufacturing which offered insightful and truly valuable information.” said Martin Petrak, CEO Precision ADM.

Canada Makes would like to thank James Wilson, Deputy Minister of Growth, Enterprise and Trade, Province of Manitoba for attending this years conference and we hope to continue working closely with Manitoba and other provinces in building a world leading AM sector.

The afternoon was highlighted by McGill’s University’s Mathieu Brochu’s presentation about the AM ecosystem and how to achieve an equilibrium. The day also included two significant announcements, first, is a brand new AM training initiative called Fab 3D and a new 3D Printing Design Challenge for Canada’s post secondary students that will include cash prizes.

Canada Makes is very pleased with the positive feedback received for this conference, which now must be considered Canada’s leading Additive manufacturing event. We would like to thank Louis Duhamel for doing a great job as facilitator and look forward to another great event next year.

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Canada Makes renews Metal Additive Demonstration Program

Canada Makes is pleased to announce the renewal of its Metal Additive Demonstration Program for 2017/18. The program is funded by the National Research Council (NRC) through its Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) Materials and Manufacturing Sector Team (MMST).

The goal of the program is to de-risk the initial trial and learn about metal additive manufacturing (AM) capabilities. Interested companies will be invited to engage with a working group expert in metal additive manufacturing who will assist in better understanding the advantages and business opportunities both in terms of cost savings and efficiency of metal AM. Once the project is deemed viable for AM and the SME is IRAP eligible a part is built and then sent to the participating SME to test.  Canada Makes pays for the work.

The programs goals are to create awareness and encourage the adoption of AM technology to improve Canada’s manufacturing and exporting sectors and develop of a Canadian metal AM supply chain.

More than 100 companies from across Canada have participated in the first three rounds of the program and the renewal offers the chance for more companies to receive financing for a metal AM project.

If you are interested in the program, please contact
Frank Defalco
frank.defalco@cme-mec.ca
(613) 875-1674

Interested companies are encouraged to view Canada Makes’ two interactive guides to learn more about metal AM.

These two guides, the Metal Additive Process Guide & Metal Additive Design Guide are designed to assist small businesses new to metal additive manufacturing (AM) wanting to learn more about process and designing for metal AM (DfAM). The Guides are easy to use and interactive offering useful information for newcomers to this technology.

Access is free although we request that you register. Thank you and enjoy!

Metal Additive Process Guide

Guide 1 – This is an introductory guide to metal 3d printing using laser powder bed technology

Metal Additive Design Guide

Guide 2 – This design guide introduces concepts needed when designing for metal 3d printing.