Home » Posts tagged '3D Printing'

Tag Archives: 3D Printing

Canada Makes Additive Manufacturing Forum – Aerospace and Automotive Tooling

The CME Canada Makes Additive Manufacturing Forum of October 24, 2018 at the University of Waterloo will feature speakers from both the Aerospace and Automotive/tooling sectors who will discuss on how they improved their competitiveness through the adoption of additive manufacturing.

Join us and learn more about this emerging sector.

The Forum will feature two panels, “Aerospace using Additive Manufacturing” and “Conformal Cooling – Facts versus Myths Overcoming Obstacles.”

  • Panel 1 – Aerospace and Additive Manufacturing, moderator Mark Kirby
  • Panel 2 – Conformal Cooling – Facts versus Myths Overcoming Obstacles, moderator Ed Bernard

The forum will continue to deliver on the success of past events and offer ample opportunity for networking. The Canada Makes Scrum, introduced last year, will once again use the same format. Canada Makes partners will circle the room with tables and banners and take part in a great opportunity to talk face-to-face with experts in additive.

Canada Makes continues offering insight and expertise for Canada’s industry leaders with the mission of helping companies understand how they might use additive manufacturing as part of their process. The forum will show how additive is a key component of Industry 4.0, implementation.

Time: 8 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Location: Federation Hall (Building #35) University of Waterloo
200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON
$100 CME Members/Canada Makes Partners
$150 CME / Canada Makes Non-Members


The Master of Ceremony is David Saint John Director of Innovation and Advanced Manufacturing Linamar.

View the list and bios of speakers here


Time Topic Speaker
8:00 – 9:00 a.m. Registration and Networking Coffee
9:00 – 9:10 a.m. Welcome Remarks To be announced
9:10 – 9:45 a.m. Laser Beam Melting drives efficiency of tooling applications Mathias Gebauer, Fraunhofer Group Manager for AM applications
9:45 – 10:15 a.m. How Additive Manufacturing has shaped the automotive sector and is driving it into the future Cassidy Silbernagel, two time winner of the Additive World Design for Additive Manufacturing Challenge
10:15 – 10:45 a.m. Networking Break
10:45 – 11:45 a.m. Panel Conformal Cooling – Facts vs Myths and Overcoming Obstacles Moderator Ed Bernard

Panellists: Wes Byleveld, Director, Additive Manufacturing Exco Engineering

Annette Langhammer, Director of Advanced Engineering NMC Dynaplas


11:45 – 12:00 p.m. Journey to AM in Tires, Tracks & Tracks Systems TBC Salvatore Messina, Project Manager, Advanced Product Camso Inc.
12:00 -1:15 p.m. Networking Lunch
1:15 – 1:45 p.m. Aerospace and Additive Manufacturing applications Burloak speaker TBD
1:45 – 2:45 p.m. Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace. Moderator Mark Kirby

Panellists: Roger Eybel, Materials and Processes Group Leader/Safran Expert
Safran Landing Systems

Mathieu Fagnan, Enterprise Manager, Additive Manufacturing Technologies Pratt & Whitney Canada

Name TBC – GE

2:45 – 3:10 p.m. TBD TBD
3:10 – 3:35 p.m. Title to be determined Name TBD, Jesse Garant Metrology Center
3:35 – 3:45 p.m. Update on the Medical 3D Printing Centre Olivier Marcotte Agent de recherche et développement, Quebec Industrial Research Center (CRIQ)
3:45 p.m. – 5:00 p.m Reception brought to you by CRIQ Reception

Book your group rate for CANADA MAKES at the Delta Waterloo

The following companies will be sharing their expertise at the Canada Makes Scrum.



Additive Manufacturing 101: How to (re)design your parts for Additive Manufacturing

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Redesigned concept of a carburetor (Image: Cassidy Silbernagel)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the final article in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories (binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, vat photopolymerization) and now a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Design for Additive Manufacturing

All of these following principles differ greatly for each technology category. Some are not a concern, others are a major concern. Before you design for AM, you need to know which process you are designing for, and if possible, what machine it will be built upon. Each machine and even different materials differ on some of these aspects.

Supports / Overhangs

Each technology deals with this differently. Generally, there is a critical angle (typically 45 degrees) that allows no support to be needed such as in the letter Y. Some need supports for all bridges of a certain length such as the middle of a capital H. Others need supports for overhangs such as at the ends of a capital T. How supports are designed or generated and removed needs to be thought of in the design process. By changing or re-orientating the design, you can minimise the need for supports, and change how the supports are removed.


Two factors come into play for orientation. First is material properties can differ depending on the direction they are built. This shows some test bars I printed to test how build orientation affects the electrical resistivity of a metal alloy. Strength can differ depending on build orientation so if you have a part that needs to have a certain strength in a certain direction, you will need to know how the orientation affects the strength of the part.

Images: Marc Saunders

The second is that printed features can come out looking differently depending on orientation. If you have a circle you want to print and have it come out circular, you will need to orient the part so that the circle is in the XY plane and not chopped up by the layers.

Minimum feature size / Resolution

This greatly depends on the process you use, and especially the machine you use. Just because two machines from different manufacturers use the same technology, they may not have the same feature specifications. There are also many factors that play into minimum features, and each is different. Here you can see some of the minimum sizes for a typical SLS process in Nylon. This is where you need to find out the machine and material specific specifications if you want to be designing features in the submillimeter range.


There are many different ways post-processing can affect how you design. If the process relies on supports, they will need to be removed manually, or potentially semi-automatically. If attached to a build plate, the parts will need to be removed. If there is excess powder or liquid trapped, it will need to be removed. If you want uniform or enhanced material properties, a heat treatment or post infusing of a second material may be needed. If you have critical surfaces that assemble, post machining will be required including custom part holding jigs or fixtures. All of these need to be taken into consideration when designing in order to gain the greatest benefits from AM.

Four ways to (re)design parts

Method 1: Send directly for AM

Method 2: Modify for AM

Method 3: Combine and redesign for AM

Method 4: Rethink and redesign for AM

Method 1: Send directly for AM

The first and easiest is to simply take an existing design and without modification create it using AM technology. This is advantageous when the single part is excessively complex making it difficult to produce using traditional methods or made from materials that are expensive where minimal waste is desirable. This can also be desirable when the lead times for a part are excessively long or if the part is no longer manufactured.


  • Easiest
  • Less material wastage
  • Direct single part replacement
  • Potential faster lead times
  • Allows easier manufacture of complex design


  • Narrow scope of use
  • Limited potential gains

Method 2: Modify for AM

The second is to redesign the single part to either improve performance and/or to make the part better suited for AM.


  • Improve performance
  • Decrease weight
  • Improve printability
  • Direct single part replacement
  • Less material wastage


  • Requires same assembly methods and parts

Method 3: Combine and redesign for AM

The third is to combine multiple parts to aid in part reduction, reduce assembly costs, and enhance performance.

Before 3D printing, this fuel nozzle had 20 different pieces. Now, just one part, the nozzle is 25% lighter and five times more durable.


  • Allows reduction of parts
  • Reduce assembly
  • Potentially less risk than a complete redesign of overall machine/assembly


  • Requires more design time
  • Requires testing and validation

Method 4: Modify for AM

The fourth is to completely rethink the assembly and redesign according to basic first principles and design requirements. While this complete redesign can yield the greatest results, it takes the most time and effort to achieve.


Image: Optisys LLCThe test project involved a complete redesign of a high-bandwidth, directional tracking antenna array for aircraft (known as a Ka-band 4×4 monopulse array).

Reduce part count reduction from 100 discrete pieces to a one-piece device.

  • Cut weight by over 95%.
  • Reduce lead time 11 to two months. (eight months of development, three to six more of build time)
  • Reduce production costs by 20%.
  • Eliminate 75% of non-recurring costs.


  • Allows greatest performance increases
  • Eliminate parts and assembly
  • Reduce weight, cost, lead time


  • Most amount of design effort

Canada Makes 3D Challenge Trophy, Concept to Product

View the following video showing the process of using both additive and subtractive manufacturing to go from a concept to a product. Thank you to our friends at Renishaw for sharing this wonder video.

The trophy was recently awarded to the team of Lisa Brock and Yanli Zhu from the University of Waterloo and their design of biodegradable packaging made from mushroom roots. canadamakes.ca/canada-makes-ann…eam-3d-challenge/

The award was presented during the first Conference of NSERC Network for Holistic Innovation in Additive Manufacturing (HI-AM) at the University of Waterloo.

Winning team of Yanli Zhu and Lisa Brock of the University of Waterloo with Frank Defalco of Canada Makes

Students were asked to focus on creating innovative tools or products that reduce our environmental footprint using additive manufacturing in tandem with conventional manufacturing approaches.

Lisa Brock and Yanli Zhu proposed the design of biodegradable packaging made from mushroom roots and agricultural waste using binder jetting additive manufacturing. The packaging design was created by optically 3D scanning the object. Approximately 10% of materials used in additive manufacturing can be recycled into new plastics, and the rest are disposed. The options for disposal are landfills and incineration, both of which increase the amount of greenhouse gases. Therefore, new biobased biodegradable materials must be developed to decrease the negative environmental impacts of these additive manufacturing plastics. https://youtu.be/XKU-BHKuGZI


Workshop: Industrial applications of 3D – Presented by Réseau Québec-3D, Canada Makes & AON3D

This is rescheduled from June 20 to September 12, 2018

June 20th is the next in our series of additive manufacturing workshops Industrial applications of 3D hosted by Montreal’s AON3D. Réseau Québec-3D and Canada Makes are again partnering to showcase some of Canada’s leading experts in 3D printing. This half-day workshop will focus on industrial applications of the 3D technology- how 3D can help you gain an adavantge.

Topics will include; The Journey from Prototyping to Production, a look at how companies have successfully adapted AM since the 90’s, 3D Printing in construction, 3D scanning applications and more. The workshop’s goal is to enlighten you and stimulate thought on how 3D technology can be used in your business.

Recently, certain sectors have seen dramatic shifts in the way they operate. How fast can it happen? Take the U.S. hearing aid industry, it converted to 100% additive manufacturing in less than 500 days. According to one industry CEO, not one company that stuck to traditional manufacturing methods survived. Examples like this speak for themselves about the potential disruption 3D printing can have.

Join us and learn about the power of 3D printing and how companies have prospered through its adoption. 

Real business opportunities are available to those who understand how to use this powerful new tool as part of their process. The workshop offers the chance to meet face-to-face and network with some of Canada’s leaders in additive manufacturing (AM).

We look forward to seeing you, seating is limited so sign up now as our workshops sell out fast!

Date: September 12, 2018
Time: 8 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
Location: AON3D
9494 Boul. St. Laurent Suite 600
Montreal QC, H2N 1P4

$25 Réseau Québec-3D & CME Canada Makes Members
$50 Non-Members

Members register here

Non-members register here


Time Topic Speaker
8:00 – 9:00 a.m. Registration and Networking coffee  
9:00 – 9:30 a.m. Welcome Remarks & Unlocking new industrial applications in 3D printing through materials Kevin Han, CEO AON3D
9:30 – 10:00 a.m. 3D scanning and 3D printing technologies for the construction sector Martin Lavoie, Creadditive
10:00 – 10:30 a.m. Networking Break
10:30 – 11:00 a.m. 3D scanning, its applications and how it improves time to market Vincent Goudreault, 3D Metrology Expert Creaform
11:00 – 11:30 a.m. 3D Printing… the Journey from Prototyping to Production Gilles Desharnais, CEO Axis Prototype
11:30 – 12:00 p.m. Sujets concrets de pièces industrielles en impression 3D metal Cyrille Chanal, CEO FusiA Impression 3D Métal

About Réseau Québec-3D
The Réseau Québec-3D network is helping rally a community around additive manufacturing. Interested parties include stakeholders from aeronautics, ground transportation, and the energy industry, as well as mould manufacturers, machining companies, and people from the medical and dental sectors. University, college, and industry researchers are also taking part, along with 3D printing manufacturers and manufacturers and distributors of the raw materials used for 3D printing and metal-processing and composite material companies.

About AON3D
AON3D is a rapidly growing startup on a mission to put industrial 3D printing capabilities into the hands of those who need it most. Our technology has made it 10 times cheaper than before to 3D print with advanced thermoplastics, and we continue to push the boundaries on commercializing new materials for 3D printing.

Contact information:
Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes

Highlights of AMUG 2018

 The Additive Manufacturers User Group, AMUG to all concerned, held its 30th anniversary event last week at the historical Union Station Hotel in St. Louis Missouri and it did not disappoint. Attending AMUG is a unique experience plain and simple. The expertise on the floor at AMUG is unrivalled and the learning opportunities endless.

Picking a high point is hard but the roaring and dizzying speed of the NASCAR racetrack as our surprise destination on Award Night is hard to beat. The evening was highlighted with the announcement of Custom Prototypes’ Mark Antony Roman Helmut as the winner of the Technical Competition Advanced Finishing.

My friend and Canada Makes partner Hargurdeep (Deep) Singh, Director of Additive Manufacturing at CAD MicroSolutions Inc. said the following, “Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG) Conference 2018 was a fantastic event to connect with many end-users, engineers, business executives and pioneers of the Additive Industry. This event provided an excellent resource for learning about the future of 3D Printing and I would like to acknowledge Frank Defalco for representing Canada Makes at AMUG 2018. Canada Makes representation helped bring together many partners who are now moving forward in helping Canadian companies to enable innovation and leverage AM technologies.”

Deep was kind enough to share some of his finer photos taken during the event. See if you can spot Deep hidden is some of the pictures.

About Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG)
The Additive Manufacturing Users Group’s origins date back to the early 1990s when the founding industry users group was called 3D Systems North American Stereolithography Users Group, a users group solely focused on the advancement of stereolithography (SL) use with the owners and operators of 3D Systems’ equipment. Today, AMUG educates and supports users of all additive manufacturing technologies. The primary charter of the group remains the same, but its members are much more diversified, global and focused in advancing additive manufacturing technology for rapid manufacturing and prototyping.

With AMUG’s expanded range, operators/owners of any commercial technology — stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, DMD, DMLS, FDM, LS, SL, SLM, PolyJet, and more * — can benefit from the information exchange and professional network that AMUG offers. www.amug.com

Additive Manufacturing 101: What is it?

Image: Centre for Additive Manufacturing - The University of Nottingham

Image: Centre for Additive Manufacturing – The University of Nottingham

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First this introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories (binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, vat photopolymerization) and then a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.


Additive manufacturing (AM) has been called the next Industrial revolution[1]–[3]. It is a recent technology that encompasses a wide range of different processes and materials. It is changing industries like aerospace by adjusting how engineers think about designing complex parts[4]–[6]. This revolution can take designs that have gone unchanged for decades and improve them.

AM was first conceived of in the 1970s with the first parts made in the 1980s and has had many names over the years.

  • Layer manufacturing or LM[7]
  • Rapid manufacturing or RM[8]
  • Rapid tooling[7]
  • Rapid prototyping or RP[8]
  • Laser rapid prototyping[9]
  • Solid freeform fabrication or SFF[10]
  • Direct digital manufacturing or DDM[11]
  • 3D printing or 3DP[12]

Initially, AM was used as a tool to create prototypes much more rapidly than could be done by other means and aided in the development of bringing new products to market[13], [14]. It then helped create tooling, tooling inserts, jigs and fixtures that were used in the manufacturing of end-use parts[7], [8]. It has continued to evolve and now is being used in making end-use parts such as low-volume production plastic casings, high-end consumer in-ear music monitors, GE LEAP jet engine fuel nozzles, and SpaceX SuperDraco rocket engine chambers and Falcon 9 main oxidizer valve bodies which have gone into space.

While AM has been around for three decades, it has yet to be utilized in the manufacturing of electric motors. Since the late 1800s, electric motors have seen only a small number of improvements, most of which have come from new and improved materials and new manufacturing techniques[15]–[18]. Yet the core design of motors has been relatively unchanged [19]–[21]. There is an evident opportunity to research how AM can change electric motor design. AM has the potential to produce new electric motors that can increase motor efficiencies and power densities.

Review of Additive Manufacturing

There are many different types of AM processes. Each has specific strengths and capabilities with unique areas of specialization. Regardless of the process, there are some fundamental principles that all follow.

Subtractive manufacturing usually starts out with a solid chunk of material that is larger than the final desired shape or part. Then using different tools, material is removed (or subtracted) until the final shape or part is achieved. It is important to note that casting is not considered additive or subtractive, but rather a formative process, as an existing mould or pattern is needed to create the final part.

Compared to subtractive, AM works in the opposite way. Instead of removing material to get the final desired shape or part, material is added to a build platform bit by bit. Most forms of AM follow these basic steps:

  1. Take a 3D model
  2. Slice model into layers and generate computer code
  3. Print first 2D slice and supports (if needed)
  4. Increment height
  5. Print next layer
  6. Repeat steps 4-5 until finished
  7. Post process (if needed)

A minor exception to these steps is when an AM process can deposit material in three-dimensional space. It is then not limited to just printing 2D layers one at a time[22]–[25]. AM can be a faster and more economical way to make parts, especially when the part is complex and/or made from an expensive material. These steps are still quite broad and have many details that can provide deeper insight.

AM process steps

Step 1: 3D model

The process begins with a computer-generated 3D model of the desired final part. The model needs to be capable of being printed, which means that it needs to occupy a defined volume. The part can’t be a single surface with a wall thickness of zero. Once it has thickness and volume, it then needs to be an enclosed watertight solid. This means that if water is put in the interior volume of the model, there are no holes from the inside volume to the outside surface. Even objects like a Möbius band or Klein bottle[26] can be printed as long as the single surface is thickened to have a defined watertight volume.

Figure 1: Klein bottle and Mobius band show a surface with no thickness[26]

Once the model is generated correctly, it needs to be saved to a specific file format. These specific file formats are needed in order for it to be prepared properly for printing. Thus it needs to be saved as either an STL file[27], AMF file[28] or 3MF file[29]. The STL file format has been the de facto standard since it was created in the late 1980s. However, it does have limitations which cause some problems. It does not store the units of measurement of the original model so they need to be assumed. Also, the file size becomes very large when trying to save a model with a high level of surface curvature. In response to these limitations, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) introduced the AMF file format in 2011. Then in 2013, Microsoft intended to do the same with its own 3MF format. This format became natively supported in all Windows operating systems since Windows 8.1. 3MF has since garnered considerable support from large companies such as HP, 3D Systems, Stratasys, GE, Siemens, Autodesk and Dassault Systems although it is unknown how many actively use this file format. Thus STL is still the file format of choice for almost all 3D printing. However, a newly signed liaison agreement between ASTM and the 3MF Consortium may bridge some differences between AMF and 3MF and create one new standard file format to replace STL.

Step 2: Prepare for printing

Secondly, special software is needed to turn that 3D model into data that a 3D printer can recognize and use. This usually involves cutting or slicing the model into many digital layers. Each layer is then converted into either a 2D image or into a set of 2D tool paths. The spacing between these slices will determine the printed thickness of the layers that will be seen in the final part. These layers partially determine the final surface quality and surface roughness of the final part, as well as how long the part will take to print. This height is an important compromise between print speed and surface quality, thus they are generally very thin. An average across several processes is around 100 µm or 0.1mm[11]. Depending on the AM process, the range of layer heights is vast. In two-photon polymerization, layer features as small as 40nm or 0.00004mm[30] can be created which is smaller than the wavelength of ultraviolet light[31]. Microwave sintering can create layers up to 5cm or 50mm in depth[32]. Regardless, when working in a process, the thicker the layer, the faster the build speed but the rougher the exterior becomes. Hence layer height is a trade-off between speed and quality.

Figure 2: T shaped structure with supports[33]

Depending on the geometry of the model and the AM process involved, support structures may be needed[11]. These support structures anchor overhanging areas of the final part to the build platform or other solid portions of the part. Imagine printing a 3D letter “T” starting from the bottom moving up to the top. The 3D printer would be able to print the main body of the letter without any issue. But as soon as it gets to the top, it would have a significant challenge to print the rest properly. The reason being there is nothing that would support the outreached arms of the letter. Thus some type of support structure is needed to be built up at the same time as the main body. When it reaches the point to print the arms, it would then be able to print on top of the main body and the support structure. An alternative option is to design the part for AM so that it does not need supports. For example, if the arms of the “T” were angled upward from the main body, the main body then becomes the support structure. The part would look more like the letter “Y”. Thus the letter Y could be considered a 3D print-optimized version of the letter T that doesn’t need support.

Steps 3-6: Printing

The specifics of printing depend on the process involved and will be described in much more detail further on in the report. Regardless, the 3D printer uses the computer code generated in the previous step to create an initial solid layer of material onto a build surface. The build surface could be a solid platform onto which the part is printed or a layer of unsolidified material that will support the part. This first layer is the first slice of the original 3D model that was calculated by the computer software in step two. Once the first layer is printed, the machine increments to the next height ready to print the next layer. This new height corresponds to the second slice of the original 3D model. The printer then creates a new solid layer based on that second slice. This new solid layer bonds to the previous layer making it one solid piece. The process repeats layer by layer until the final layer is finished. If the bonds between layers are weak, the build could fail or result in a structurally weak part. These anisotropic material properties can manifest as a weaker bond between layers than within layers[34]–[36] but can lead to beneficial properties for magnetic applications[37]. There are some processes strategies[38], [39] and research projects[40] that are addressing this concern with strength.

Step 7: Post-process

Finally, once a part is finished, it is removed from the build chamber and post-processed. This post process could take any number of forms. Some processes require removing support materials[8], [41]. A few need to post cure the material to ensure a fully solid part[42]. Laser melted parts need heat treating to relieve internal stresses that build up in the build process[43]. Binder jetted parts can be placed in an oven to remove a sacrificial binder used in printing. Others are placed in ovens and sintered to increase the strength and density of the part[44]. Infiltrants like glues or metals can be added to give more strength and higher density to the part[42], [44]. Parts can undergo a chemical reaction to change the material for different material properties[45]. Parts can be smoothed by chemicals[42], by blasting or tumbling to remove layer lines. Or parts can have some artistic flourish through hand painting, hydrographics[46], or even electroplating.

Methods and processes

Only recently was a standard designed for classifying the different ways something can be made using AM. In 2009, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) created a committee to define standards in AM technology[47]. In 2010 they defined seven main technologies used in AM. This was given the standard designation: F2792–12a[48]. As of December 2015, these ASTM standards were replaced with a new standard. ASTM joined with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to form ISO/ASTM 52900:2015[49]. Despite having seven uniquely defined categories, there are many different processes within each category. Regardless, the overall method and the underlying principles discussed previously still apply. Variance exists only with the materials, deposition of layers, and methods of adhesion.

These seven categories will be explored in depth with their:

  • definition
  • alternate industrial or trade names
  • a brief history
  • description of method and materials
  • advantages and disadvantages

These seven categories are (in alphabetical order):

  1. binder jetting
  2. directed energy deposition
  3. material extrusion
  4. material jetting
  5. powder bed fusion
  6. sheet lamination
  7. vat photopolymerization

The following are some common terms that are used when talking about these processes. They come from the ISO/ASTM definitions and are used throughout the seven category descriptions[49].

3D printer: the machine used for 3D printing.

Build chamber: the enclosed location within the 3D printer where the parts are fabricated.

Build platform: a base which provides a surface upon which the building of the part is started and supported throughout the build process.

Build space: the location where it is possible for parts to be fabricated, typically within the build chamber or on a build platform.

Build surface: the area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer or for the first layer, the build surface is often the build platform.

Build volume: the total usable volume available in the machine for building parts.


[1]    N. Hopkinson, R. Hague, and P. Dickens, Rapid manufacturing: an industrial revolution for the digital age. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

[2]    T. S. Srivatsan and T. S. Sudarshan, Additive Manufacturing: Innovations, Advances, and Applications. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2015.

[3]    B. Berman, “3-D printing: The new industrial revolution,” Business Horizons, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 155–162, Mar. 2012.

[4]    B. Lyons, Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace: Examples and Research Outlook, vol. 42, no. 1. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy of Engineering, 2012.

[5]    A. K. Misra, J. E. Grady, and R. Carter, “Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components,” Additive Manufacturing for Small Manufacturers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, Oct. 2015.

[6]    J. Coykendall, M. Cotteleer, J. Holdowsky, and M. Mahto, “3D opportunity in aerospace and defense: Additive manufacturing takes flight,” Deloitte University Press, Westlake, Texas, USA, Jun. 2014.

[7]    G. N. Levy and R. Schindel, “Overview of layer manufacturing technologies, opportunities, options and applications for rapid tooling,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, vol. 216, no. 12, pp. 1621–1634, Jan. 2002.

[8]    G. N. Levy, R. Schindel, and J. P. Kruth, “Rapid Manufacturing And Rapid Tooling With Layer Manufacturing (LM) Technologies, State Of The Art And Future Perspectives,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 589–609, Jan. 2003.

[9]    M. Shiomi, A. Yoshidome, F. Abe, and K. Osakada, “Finite element analysis of melting and solidifying processes in laser rapid prototyping of metallic powders,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 237–252, Feb. 1999.

[10]  J. J. Beaman, J. W. Barlow, D. L. Bourell, R. H. Crawford, H. L. Marcus, and K. P. McAlea, Solid Freeform Fabrication: A New Direction in Manufacturing. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Springer US, 1997.

[11]  I. Gibson, D. W. Rosen, and B. Stucker, Additive manufacturing technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2014.

[12]  J.-P. Kruth, M. C. Leu, and T. Nakagawa, “Progress in Additive Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 525–540, 1998.

[13]  G. N. Levy, “SLS-Layer Manufacturing a Powerful Complementary Technology In the RPD (Rapid Product Development) Cycle,” Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, vol. 3, no. 2–4, pp. 159–166, Jan. 2000.

[14]  A. Bernard and A. Fischer, “New Trends in Rapid Product Development,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 635–652, Jan. 2002.

[15]  W. Tong, Mechanical design of electric motors. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2014.

[16]  A. Hughes and B. Drury, Electric motors and drives: fundamentals, types and applications, 4th ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Newnes Press, 2013.

[17]  R. C. O’Handley, Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications, vol. 830622677. New York, New York, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000.

[18]  O. Gutfleisch, M. A. Willard, E. Brück, C. H. Chen, S. G. Sankar, and J. P. Liu, “Magnetic Materials and Devices for the 21st Century: Stronger, Lighter, and More Energy Efficient,” Advanced Materials, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 821–842, Feb. 2011.

[19]  W. J. King, “The development of electrical technology in the 19th century,” United States National Museum Bulletin, vol. 228, pp. 233–407, 1962.

[20]  M. Doppelbauer, “The invention of the electric motor 1800-1854,” [Online], 25-Sep-2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.eti.kit.edu/english/1376.php. [Accessed: 04-Dec-2015].

[21]  B. Drury, Control techniques drives and controls handbook, 2nd ed. London, United Kingdom: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2009.

[22]  P. F. Yuan, H. Meng, L. Yu, and L. Zhang, “Robotic Multi-dimensional Printing Based on Structural Performance,” in Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2016, D. Reinhardt, R. Saunders, and J. Burry, Eds. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 92–105.

[23]  X. Song, Y. Pan, and Y. Chen, “Development of a Low-Cost Parallel Kinematic Machine for Multidirectional Additive Manufacturing,” Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 137, no. 2, p. 021005, Apr. 2015.

[24]  F. B. Coulter and A. Ianakiev, “4D Printing Inflatable Silicone Structures,” 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 140–144, Sep. 2015.

[25]  R. J. A. Allen and R. S. Trask, “An experimental demonstration of effective Curved Layer Fused Filament Fabrication utilising a parallel deposition robot,” Additive Manufacturing, vol. 8, pp. 78–87, Oct. 2015.

[26]  K. Polthier, “Imaging maths-Inside the Klein bottle,” plus magazine, vol. 26, Cambridge, England, 2003.

[27]  J. Allison, “Re: History of .stl format,” [Online email], 15-Jan-1997. [Online]. Available: http://www.rp-ml.org/rp-ml-1997/0091.html. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2016].

[28]  J. D. Hiller and H. Lipson, “STL 2.0: A Proposal for a Universal Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing File Format,” in Proceedings of the 20th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 2009, no. 1, pp. 266–278.

[29]  “What is 3MF?,” 3MF Consortium, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.3mf.io/what-is-3mf/. [Accessed: 11-Jan-2016].

[30]  L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5929, pp. 910–913, May 2009.

[31]  D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of physics extended, 10th ed., vol. 1. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

[32]  L. A. Taylor and T. T. Meek, “Microwave Sintering of Lunar Soil: Properties, Theory, and Practice,” Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 188–196, Jul. 2005.

[33]  D. Buchbinder, W. Meiners, N. Pirch, K. Wissenbach, and J. Schrage, “Investigation on reducing distortion by preheating during manufacture of aluminum components using selective laser melting,” Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 012004, 2014.

[34]  B. E. Carroll, T. A. Palmer, and A. M. Beese, “Anisotropic tensile behavior of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated with directed energy deposition additive manufacturing,” Acta Materialia, vol. 87, pp. 309–320, Apr. 2015.

[35]  A. Bagsik and V. Schöoppner, “Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling Parts Manufactured with ULTEM 9085,” in Proceedings of the 69th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Plastics Engineers 2011 (ANTEC 2011), Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 2011, pp. 1294–1298.

[36]  W. Cooke, R. Anne Tomlinson, R. Burguete, D. Johns, and G. Vanard, “Anisotropy, homogeneity and ageing in an SLS polymer,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 269–279, Jun. 2011.

[37]  M. Garibaldi, I. Ashcroft, M. Simonelli, and R. Hague, “Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using Selective Laser Melting,” Acta Materialia, vol. 110, no. MAY, pp. 207–216, May 2016.

[38]  B. A. Fulcher, D. K. Leigh, and T. J. Watt, “Comparison of AlSi10Mg and Al 6061 Processed Through DMLS,” in Proceedings of the 25th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 2014, pp. 404–419.

[39]  P. Mercelis and J. Kruth, “Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 254–265, Oct. 2006.

[40]  S. Fathi, P. Dickens, R. Hague, K. Khodabakhshi, and M. Gilbert, “Jetting of Reactive Materials for Additive Manufacturing of Nylon Parts,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication (NIP 25), Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 2009, vol. 2009, no. 2, pp. 784–787.

[41]  S. S. Crump, J. W. Comb, W. R. Priedeman Jr, and R. L. Zinniel, “Process of support removal for fused deposition modeling,” U.S. Patent 5,503,785, 02-Apr-1996.

[42]  S. Upcraft and R. Fletcher, “The rapid prototyping technologies,” Assembly Automation, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 318–330, Dec. 2003.

[43]  E. Brandl, U. Heckenberger, V. Holzinger, and D. Buchbinder, “Additive manufactured AlSi10Mg samples using Selective Laser Melting (SLM): Microstructure, high cycle fatigue, and fracture behavior,” Materials & Design, vol. 34, pp. 159–169, Feb. 2012.

[44]  J.-P. Kruth, G. Levy, F. Klocke, and T. H. C. Childs, “Consolidation phenomena in laser and powder-bed based layered manufacturing,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 730–759, Jan. 2007.

[45]  A. E. Jakus, S. L. Taylor, N. R. Geisendorfer, D. C. Dunand, and R. N. Shah, “Metallic Architectures from 3D-Printed Powder-Based Liquid Inks,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 25, no. 45, pp. 6985–6995, Dec. 2015.

[46]  Y. Zhang, C. Yin, C. Zheng, and K. Zhou, “Computational hydrographic printing,” ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) – Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2015, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 131:1–131:11, Jul. 2015.

[47]  W. E. Frazier, “Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1917–1928, Jun. 2014.

[48]  “ASTM F2792-12a, Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, (Withdrawn 2015),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA, 2012.

[49]  “ISO/ASTM 52900:2015(en), Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.

Canada Makes Forum: Additive Manufacturing Supply Chain & Logistics

CME Canada Makes and the University of Waterloo Present: Additive Manufacturing Supply Chain & Logistics Forum

How 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing is impacting the supply chain and industrial logistics of manufacturing.Canada Makes AM Forum

This one-day forum is to feature industrial leaders in supply chain and logistics in the additive manufacturing/3D Printing sector. CME Canada Makes continues offering insight and expertise for Canada’s industry leaders with the mission of assisting companies to adopt additive manufacturing, a key component of Industry 4.0 implementation.

Supply chains are and will be affected in significant ways as the costs of storing massive amounts of inventory and global shipping are reduced and more parts are customized printed on demand. Key sectors of our economy are being affected in profound ways and Canada Makes is bringing in experts to discuss issues affecting and sometimes disrupting manufacturers’ supply chain. The Canada Makes Forum will focus on Medical, Aerospace, Automotive and Energy and their supply chain.

Join the Canada Makes Forum Networking scrum

Networking with Canada’s AM sector professionals will be front and centre to the Forum. Experts representing various key features to the AM supply chain will be on-site to answer questions on how 3D printing is changing global supply chains.

Canada Makes would like to thank the following companies for joining the Canada Makes Forum networking scrum: AMM, Anubis 3D, Axis Prototype, Cimetrix, CRIQ, Expanse Microtechnologies, Jesse Garant Metrology Center, NRC, Precision ADM, Tiger-Vac.

Date: November 22
Time: 8 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.
Location: Federation Hall (Building #35)
University of Waterloo
200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON

$100 CME Members/Canada Makes Partners
$150 CME / Canada Makes Non-Members

Local accommodation Delta Waterloo

Register here


Time Topic Speaker
8:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m. Registration and Networking Breakfast
9:00 a.m. – 9:10 a.m. Welcome Remarks Ian Howcroft, CME Vice-President Ehsan Toyserkani UoW (TBC)
9:10 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. AM supply chain case studies – Automotive & Ground Transportation Bob Little President, Altair Canada
9:45 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. Health Canada Kinga Michno
10:00 a.m. – 10:30 a.m. Networking Break Foyer
10:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. Medical AM Panel – AM challenges for a new medical supply chain Miheala Vlasea – University of Waterloo (Moderator)

Martin Petrak – Precision ADM

Francois Gingras – CRIQ

Matt Parkes – Adeiss

11:45 a.m. – 12:45 p.m. Lunch Foyer
 12:45 p.m. – 1:00 pm  Special Announcement Peter Adams- Burloak
1:00 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. AM supply chain case study – To supply aerospace, it’s more than just the parts Brandon Bouwhuis – Burloak
1:30 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. Materials Panel – AM changes the supply chain for advanced materials Mathieu Brochu – McGill (Moderator)

Kevin Nicholds – Equispheres

Vladimir Paserin – Rio Tinto,

Jerome Pollack – Tekna

2:30p.m. – 3:00 p.m. Networking Break Foyer
3:00 p.m. – 3:30 p.m. Energy – AM supply chain case study Ian Klassen – Precision ADM
3:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. How I compete with China using AM Tharwat Fouad – Anubis 3D
4:00 p.m. – 4:10 p.m. Closing remarks Frank Defalco – Canada Makes

Canada Makes releases the Metal Additive Design Guide

A new introductory design guide for metal 3D printing is now available.

OTTAWA – Canada Makes is proud to announce the launch of the Metal Additive Design Guide and invites you to explore this great new tool. The Guide was developed to assist companies interested in trying metal additive manufacturing (AM). Following the same format as the Metal Additive Process Guide, the Metal Additive Design Guide is once again a free service that introduces concepts needed when designing for additive manufacturing (DfAD).Metal Additive Design Guide

“The Metal Additive Design Guide is easy to use, interactive, offering useful information for newcomers to this technology,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. “Its primary function is to help guide Canadian SMEs looking at metal AM and how it might be added to their process. It’s a great educational resource bringing great value to users and it’s just plain cool.”

Simple, yet crucial questions like, “how big can my parts be” or, “what materials can I use” are answered in this interactive app. The Guide is not designed for the experienced metal AM user but rather someone looking for quick and straightforward answers regarding DfAM.


“Canada Makes’ goal is to assist Canadian industry in adopting additive manufacturing and the Metal Additive Metal Additive Process GuideDesign Guide continues in that vain where the Metal Additive Process Guide left off,” added Defalco.

Time saving is one of the major advantage in adopting AM processes versus traditional manufacturing. Through this free resource SMEs can receive quick answers to certain concepts about metal additive. The Guide will help speed up Canada’s manufacturing sector in understanding the capabilities of metal AM. This knowledge should expand AM adoption and invigorate Canada’s burgeoning AM supply chain, growing Canada’s competitiveness.

Canada Makes would like to state how greatly it appreciates the assistance to all those that made the Metal Additive Process Guide possible.

Altair Canada Mazak
Autodesk Microfabrica
Prof. Mike Ashby, Cambridge University MIT Aero/Astro
Burloak Technologies Moog Inc
Boothroyd Dewhurst Reaction Engines
Cranfield University Renishaw
Dassault Systemes Robarts Research Institute
ExOne Senvol
FusiA solidThinking
GE Aviation U.S. Navy ManTech Navy
Gradientspace Metalworking Canter/Cocurrent
HiETA Technologies Corporation
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

The Metal Additive Design Guide was funded through the National Research Council Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program in accordance with the Metal Additive Demonstration Program.

Canada Makes is looking forward to partnering once again with NRC-IRAP and deliver the Metal AM Demonstration Program. The program plans to continue to expand the AM knowledge base for Canada’s manufacturing sector and work with all stakeholders to grow the sector.

The Metal Additive Manufacturing Demonstration Program is delivered by Canada Makes through funding by NRC-IRAP. The program is designed to help Canadian industries increase awareness and assist in understanding the advantages of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Canada Makes works with a group of AM experts who provide participating companies guidance of the advantages and business opportunities in terms of cost savings and efficiencies of AM.

About Canada Makes
A Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters (CME) initiative, Canada Makes is a network of private, public, academic, and non-profit entities dedicated to promoting the adoption and development of additive manufacturing in Canada. For more information on Canada Makes, please visit www.canadamakes.ca

Media contact:
Frank Defalco at frank.defalco@cme-mec.ca


Additive Manufacturing in the Canadian aerospace industry

A survey of the Canadian aerospace industry reveals a difference in perception among AM stakeholders

The following research project aims to facilitate the integration of metal additive manufacturing (AM) into the Canadian aerospace supply chain. Due to its versatility, AM could provide an interesting niche for Canadian manufacturing SMEs by allowing them to manufacture a large spectrum of metal products without an in-house foundry, forge or press. Canada is ranked among the global elite in the aerospace industry, and the development of AM expertise is essential to ensuring local suppliers remain competitive and keep pace with modern manufacturing.

HEC Montréal gathered the opinions of over 70 organizations from every level of the additive manufacturing (AM) value chain in order to measure the differences in stakeholders’ perceptions of AM-related opportunities, challenges, cost drivers and advancement initiatives.

To view the results of this survey click here.

Canada Makes would like to thank Gabriel Doré of HEC Montréal for the work on this important document. This M.Sc. thesis was supported by HEC Montréal, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Quebec.

About HEC Montréal
HEC Montréal is a French-language business school located in Montréal, Canada. Since its founding in 1907, the School has trained more than 78,000 students in all fields of management. HEC is the business school of the University of Montreal.


Canada Makes – Canada’s Premier Additive Manufacturing Network

On behalf of the Canada Makes network, thank you for participating in this important initiative. As part of our organization’s ongoing commitment to ensuring Canadian industry is on the cutting-edge of technology and innovation, we have developed Canada Makes in order to directly network additive manufacturing companies with vendors and educational institutions.

Canada Makes is designed to facilitate dialogue through a series of events at academic institutions and industrial facilities. Participants will have the opportunity to respond to issues of the day as well as share their experiences related to additive manufacturing. Canada Makes is not targeting a particular policy, regulation, or program change, but rather it is a forum for business collaboration, and a way to find solutions to major industry challenges.

Lear more about Canada.

I sincerely thank you for your participation, insights, and support of this critical initiative. We look forward to working with you to strengthen Canada’s additive manufacturing community.


Martin Lavoie

Executive Director – Canada Makes

View an interview with Martin Lavoie in the following report on 3D printing Note: (Most of this video is in French)