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DMG MORI joins Canada Makes

Canada Makes is pleased to welcome DMG MORI Canada as its newest Leadership level partner. A global leader in machine tool manufacturing, DMG MORI offers a unique product range of metal additive manufacturing machines, including powder bed Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Deposition Welding on the LASERTEC 3D systems.

“Including the world-class DMG MORI in the Canada Makes network is a big plus for us,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. “The capabilities offered by combining their different process chains available for additive is truly inspiring and I look forward to working with DMG MORI in bringing innovation solutions to Canadian industry.”

DMG MORI has successfully performed on the additive manufacturing machine market for over five years with the laser deposition welding and metal-cutting machining with the LASERTEC 3D hybrid series. In addition to establishing and expanding the digital process chain DMG MORI has also developed a full-line in additive manufacturing. While the LASERTEC 65 3D is geared solely towards laser deposition welding as a complement to existing machining on the shop floor, the LASERTEC 30 SLM 2nd Generation with its new Stealth design expands the portfolio to include powder bed using selective laser melting.

The portfolio includes four complete process chains for additive processes using powder nozzle or powder bed technologies.

Thanks to the combination of additive manufacturing technologies with conventional CNC machines DMG MORI has realized four individual needs-based process chains.

On January 26, 2016, Canada Makes lead a trade mission to Germany and we were lucky to have a full day tour of the DMG MORI open house at DECKEL MAHO Pfronten to see the latest innovations and groundbreaking technologies on offer. Learn more here http://canadamakes.ca/dmg-mori-technology-for-the-future/

About DMG MORI

The DMG MORI group is a global manufacturing leader of CNC machine tools. The product range includes high-tech turning and milling machines, as well as Advanced Technologies, such as ULTRASONIC, LASERTEC, ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, automation and complete technology solutions for the Automotive, Aerospace, Die & Mold and Medical industries. The APP-based control and operating software (CELOS) and innovative products of Software Solutions enable DMG MORI to shape the future for Industry 4.0. DMG MORI also supports its customers with a wide range of training, repair, maintenance and spare part services covering the entire machine life cycle. As a ‘Global One Company’ with over 12,000 employees, DMG MORI is present in 79 countries around the world. A total of 157 international locations are in direct contact with customers. https://ca-en.dmgmori.com

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Agile announces the addition of Markforged Metal X 3D Printer

Agile manufacturing inc.Uxbridge, Canada, September 26th, 2018 – Agile Manufacturing, Inc. (Agile), a leading provider of 3D Printing & Rapid Manufacturing solutions, announces today the installation of a Markforged Metal X 3D Printer.  The Metal X represents a complete metal solution for end to end manufacturing.  The Metal X makes a great addition to Agile’s legion of production 3D Printers.

Impeller

Agile will distribute the full Metal X manufacturing solution across Canada and welcomes visitors to their facility for live demonstrations of the technology. Agile will also run production and prototype parts for their clients globally.  This breakthrough in Metal 3D Printing makes manufacturing easier and more affordable. The Metal X is currently shipping with 17-4 PH Stainless Steel with several materials to follow in the coming months including: H-13, A-2 & D-2 tool steels, Inconel 625, Titanium and Aluminum.

“The Metal X enables our clients to produce low volume production metal parts and tooling that would be very costly using traditional manufacturing methods like CNC or casting.” stated Richard Smeenk, Agile’s President.

Mold

About Agile
Agile Manufacturing Inc. provides 3D Printed parts, 3D Printers and materials.  Agile is the largest 3D Printing Service Bureau in Canada with 22 in-house production printers ranging from Stereolithography (SLA), to Laser Sintering (SLS), Figure 4 No Contact DLP, NextDent 5100 Dental Printers, MultiJet Printing (MJP), ColorJet Printing (CJP), Direct Metal Printing (DMP), Metal X, Markforged Carbon Fiber Filaments (CFF) and Filament Deposition.

Markforged package

With over 200,000 hours of annual Additive Manufacturing capacity (or 4.2 billion cubic inches per year) Agile is well positioned to meet your 3D Printing needs.  Agile sells New and Used Professional & Production 3D Printers across all technologies and we stock all materials in-house for immediate delivery. Agile Distributes 3D Systems full line of 3D Printers including SLA, SLS, MJP, Figure 4, NextDent 5100, DMP and the full line of Metal and Composite 3D Printers from Markforged.  Agile has been operating in the Greater Toronto Area for 16 years and now has a new facility in Pella Iowa serving customers across Canada and the USA, with select customers on 6 continents.  Agile Manufacturing’s team of 26 Additive Manufacturing (AM) and 3D Printing (3DP) experts is led by Richard Smeenk a 3D Printing veteran since 1996. www.agile-manufacturing.com

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University of Alberta joins Canada Makes

Canada Makes is pleased to announce the addition of the University of Alberta to its list of world-class Additive Manufacturing research institution partners. The University of Alberta is a Top 100 university in the world and one of seven Canadian university partners in the NSERC/CFI Holistic Innovation in Additive Manufacturing (HI-AM) Network.

“Canada Makes is very fortunate to have the University of Alberta as part of our network,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes. “We look forward to working with this great institution in developing additive manufacturing capabilities in Alberta as well as all of Canada.”

The University of Alberta has a mission to discover, disseminate and apply new knowledge through teaching and learning, research and creative activity, community involvement, and partnerships. U of A gives a national and international voice to innovation in Alberta, taking a lead role in placing Canada at the global forefront.

The University of Alberta and Innotech Alberta are hosting a two-day workshop addressing Additive Manufacturing in Alberta. Be sure to register and be part of this important event and help Alberta become more innovative and competitive. Learn more here http://canadamakes.ca/additive-manufacturing-alberta-workshop/

About the University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university with more than 38,000 students from 148 countries located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president. It has 388 undergraduate programs, 500 graduate programs as well as 100+ institutes and centres. ualberta.ca

Canada Makes 3D Challenge 2018-19


Canada Makes is again offering its Pan-Canadian 3D Printing Design Challenge for postsecondary students enrolled in a Canadian college or university. Winners to be announced in the Spring of 2019.

Last year’s challenge was “Design solutions for a sustainable future” and is again this year. Five finalist from last year’s challenge each received $1,000 for their design. Learn more about the designs at Canada Makes announces finalists for its 3D Challenge.

The adoption of digital manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing requires new approaches to skills and training focused on building experiential and collaborative learning. To foster this objective, the Canada Makes 3D Challenge will challenge university/college teams to design a part and compete for a full one-year paid internship from a Burloak Technologies and cash prizes.

Theme: Design solutions for a sustainable future

Description: Additive manufacturing is empowering new ways to re-think design and fabrication through innovative materials, optimized structures and enhanced functionality. There is currently a drive to think about how our society is changing in the wake of population growth and sustainability concerns. Canada Makes invites student designers to participate in the 3D Design Competition with a focus on creating innovative tools or products that reduce our environmental footprint using additive manufacturing in tandem with conventional manufacturing approaches.

Such examples include (and are not limited to):

  • lightweight structures or new designs of automotive or aerospace components that reduce overall weight and fuel consumption
  • innovative components that optimize fuel or energy consumption
  • energy harvesting devices with innovative features
  • multi-purpose objects that simplify everyday life and reduce waste
  • wearable tools or objects that enhance mobility efficiency and reduce waste

Pre-Register here

Phase I – Students who wish to participate must pre-register by November 30, 2018 indicating their intent to submit a final design.

Phase II – Participants will submit a design based on the provided criteria. These designs will be analyzed and evaluated via simulation with the top finalists announced, recognized and awarded their cash prize. Deadline for submissions is February 22, 2019.

Phase III – The top five finalists will have their design fabricated and tested, and will be invited to either make a live or video presentation and have a chance at more prizes including a chance at a one-year paid internship at Burloak Technologies.

Canada Makes 3D Challenge Trophy

Registration Process

After Pre-registrations Student/Team (no more than 3 students per team) will submit the following by February 22, 2019:

  • Cover sheet
  • 150 word description/summary
  • STL files and source files from any CAD program
  • An image of the current product design (if applicable) and a detailed description of the changes
  • Business case (800 word):
  • Justification of the product redesign, value added as measured by reduced
  • Time to produce
  • Cost impact
  • Sustainability
  • Energy consumption or renewable energy generation
  • Reduced materials
  • Promoting green design
  • Participants should define the unmet need in society or explain the waste in current solutions
  • Precisely what is being proposed
  • Why it is am improvement over existing products

Judges will choose the top 5 finalists and Canada Makes will arrange to fabricate their designs to be showcased at a final event in the spring of 2019. The finalist/teams will receive a cash prize and a chance at a one-year paid internships at Burloak Technologies.

The Challenge will have clear winning criteria and be judged on the merit of their application.

Submitted designs will be evaluated via simulation, and the top five designs will be selected for fabrication and testing based on the required criteria. The winning entries will best satisfy all of the performance criteria.

Eligibility Rules and Submission Guidelines

Terms of Acceptance

Responsibility for Submission

Privacy

Contact: Frank Defalco frank.defalco@cme-mec.ca

SLM Solutions joins Canada Makes

Canada Makes is pleased to announce SLM Solutions has joined its Additive Manufacturing (AM) network. SLM Solutions provides powder bed fusion machinery and applications development for metal prototypes and manufacturing production. It focuses on the development and distribution of innovative, production-oriented metal additive manufacturing systems.

“SLM Solutions was the first to offer overlapping multi-laser systems for the selective laser melting process and Canada Makes welcomes the addition of this proven innovator as its newest partner,” said Frank Defalco, Manager Canada Makes.

SLM Solutions is a leading provider of industrial selective laser melting equipment. With Canadian distribution partners, like Spark & Co and an AM technology center in Detroit, SLM Solutions partners with customers to aid in the development of projects and reduce the learning curve for success with metal additive manufacturing.

SLM Solutions takes a vested interest in your company’s long-term success with metal AM, providing support and knowledge-sharing that elevates use of the technology to the next level. SLM systems, available in multiple sizes, are utilized in a variety of industries around the world. Their open system architecture allows users to tailor their process and SLM Solutions’ extensive experience and technical know-how help drive innovative product developments and support customers’ competitive creativity.

About Spark & Co
Spark & Co works with Tier 1 and Tier 2 Aerospace firms to manufacture parts for major Aerospace manufacturers such as Boeing, Bombardier, Airbus, Embraer, and more. https://www.spark-co.com

Additive Manufacturing Alberta Workshop


InnoTech Alberta, in conjunction with Canada Makes and the University of Alberta, is hosting a two-day workshop addressing Additive Manufacturing in Alberta.

How do we work together to become more innovative and competitive?  What tools do we need to adopt?  What changes do we need to make?

The first day is a training course presented by AddWorks from GE Additive.  The full day course will discuss the concepts and tools necessary to adopt additive manufacturing.

The second day highlights a number of invited speakers and panelists to showcase their best practices in adoption of additive manufacturing.

This event is targeted towards designers, engineers, fabricators, innovators, and owners.

Dates:
Wednesday, October 10, 2018
Registration and continental breakfast – 8am
Course – 9am-4pm

Thursday, October 11, 2018
Registration and continental breakfast – 8am
Workshop – 8:45am-4pm
Reception, Trade Show, Poster Presentation – 4-5pm

Cost includes:  workshops and all meals (breakfast, lunch, reception and coffee breaks)

Location – Alberta Innovates/InnoTech Alberta, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, AB

Register https://am-alberta.eventbrite.ca

Innotech Alberta  

InnoTech Alberta, in conjunction with the University of Alberta and Canada Makes, is hosting a two-day workshop addressing Additive Manufacturing in Alberta.

  • How do we work together to become more innovative and competitive?
  • What tools do we need to adopt?
  • What changes do we need to make?

The first day is a training course presented by Addworks™ at GE Additive. The full day course will discuss the concepts and tools necessary to adopt additive manufacturing.

The second day highlights a number of invited speakers and panelists to showcase their best practices in adoption of additive manufacturing.

This event is targeted towards designers, engineers, fabricators, innovators, and company owners.

*Earlybird discounts are in effect until Sept. 15th.

*Ticket price includes continental breakfast and hot lunch (please contact the organizer if you have special dietary requirements)

Day 1: Learning Seminar – Wednesday, October 10 (9:00AM-4:00PM)

Breakfast and Registration start at 8:00am

Presented by: Valeria Proano Cadena, Lead Engineer, Addworks™ at GE Additive and Joe Hampshire, Product Strategy Leader, Addworks™ at GE Additive

Title

Best practices for your Additive Journey – Design, Process Selection, and Materials

Abstract

As organizations begin to adopt additive technology, they quickly realize that it takes different thinking, tools and processes to be successful in using additive in production-level manufacturing. In this workshop, Addworks™ at GE Additive will cover key concepts and best practices they use on a daily basis for its production of additive parts.

AddWorks is GE Additive’s engineering consulting team that helps companies with additive part development and production in the automotive, aviation and energy/power industries. Regardless of how simple or complex, AddWorks can help you navigate your additive journey and find a path most beneficial to your goals. GE Additive started their own additive journey over 4 years ago and is now the #1 additive user in the world.

The following outlines learning objectives for this workshop:

  1. Real-life use case examples of additive manufacturing
  2. Design best practices including requirements, conceptual design, process selection, producibility and FastWorks
  3. An overview of the material development process where machine parameters in combination with post processing drive the material properties and performance
  4. An overview of additive manufacturing processes and the various additive technologies
  5. An overview of the GE Additive innovation process used for the Additive Manufacturing
  6. Cost modeling considerations and methods for additive components.

Day 2: Workshop – Thursday, October 11, 2018 (8:45AM – 4:00PM)

Breakfast and Registration start at 8:00am

Join us after the Workshop for a reception, tradeshow, and poster presentations (starts at 4:00pm).

Keynote Speaker:

Disrupting the Disruption: How GE Additive is Pushing the Boundaries of AM, Joe Hampshire, Addworks™ at GE Additive

Invited Speakers:

  • Mark Ramsden, Director, Business Performance and Innovation, Worley Parsons
  • Ian Klassen, Director, Aerospace Sales and Business Development, Precision ADM
  • Dr. Dan Thoma, Director of Additive Network, University of Wisconsin
  • Dr. Mohsen Mohammadi, Director, Marine Additive Manufacturing Centre of Excellence, University of New Brunswick
  • Tharwat Fouad, President, Anubis 3D

Panel Discussions

Opportunities of Additive Manufacturing for the Energy Industry

Chair: Dr. Ehsan Toyserkani, University of Waterloo

  • Stefano Chiovelli, Syncrude Canada
  • Carl Weatherell, Canadian Mining Innovation Council
  • Philip Leung, Halliburton
  • Tyler Romanyk, Halliburton

Challenging the Status Quo in Alberta Manufacturing – a Small Business Perspective

Chair: Frank Delfaco, Canada Makes

  • Billy Rideout, Exergy
  • Darryl Short, Karma Machine
  • James Janeteas, Cimetrix
  • Kyle Hermenean, Machina Corp

Student Poster Presentation – Thursday, October 11

Students are invited to present their research using poster format. The best poster will be selected by an industry-academia-government committee and awarded a prize of $250.

Maximum size is 36” Tall x 48” wide.

Please contact Dr. Bogno (bogno@ualberta.ca) to submit your name, group, poster title/abstract, or for any poster related inquiries.

Students are required to submit a title and an abstract (max 200 words) of their poster. Deadline for submission is September 24.

Students must register for the Thursday event to submit a poster, although students are also welcome to register for the Wednesday event.

Posters should be submitted by Tuesday, October 9 at noon to Dr. Bogno.

______________________________________

For addtional event details please contact:

Dr. Tonya Wolfe, InnoTech Alberta

tonya.wolfe@innotechalberta.ca

Additive Manufacturing 101: How to (re)design your parts for Additive Manufacturing

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Redesigned concept of a carburetor (Image: Cassidy Silbernagel)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the final article in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories (binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, vat photopolymerization) and now a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Design for Additive Manufacturing

All of these following principles differ greatly for each technology category. Some are not a concern, others are a major concern. Before you design for AM, you need to know which process you are designing for, and if possible, what machine it will be built upon. Each machine and even different materials differ on some of these aspects.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/design-metal-am-beginners-guide-marc-saunders/

Supports / Overhangs

Each technology deals with this differently. Generally, there is a critical angle (typically 45 degrees) that allows no support to be needed such as in the letter Y. Some need supports for all bridges of a certain length such as the middle of a capital H. Others need supports for overhangs such as at the ends of a capital T. How supports are designed or generated and removed needs to be thought of in the design process. By changing or re-orientating the design, you can minimise the need for supports, and change how the supports are removed.

Orientation

Two factors come into play for orientation. First is material properties can differ depending on the direction they are built. This shows some test bars I printed to test how build orientation affects the electrical resistivity of a metal alloy. Strength can differ depending on build orientation so if you have a part that needs to have a certain strength in a certain direction, you will need to know how the orientation affects the strength of the part.


Images: Marc Saunders

The second is that printed features can come out looking differently depending on orientation. If you have a circle you want to print and have it come out circular, you will need to orient the part so that the circle is in the XY plane and not chopped up by the layers.

Minimum feature size / Resolution

This greatly depends on the process you use, and especially the machine you use. Just because two machines from different manufacturers use the same technology, they may not have the same feature specifications. There are also many factors that play into minimum features, and each is different. Here you can see some of the minimum sizes for a typical SLS process in Nylon. This is where you need to find out the machine and material specific specifications if you want to be designing features in the submillimeter range.

Post-Processing


There are many different ways post-processing can affect how you design. If the process relies on supports, they will need to be removed manually, or potentially semi-automatically. If attached to a build plate, the parts will need to be removed. If there is excess powder or liquid trapped, it will need to be removed. If you want uniform or enhanced material properties, a heat treatment or post infusing of a second material may be needed. If you have critical surfaces that assemble, post machining will be required including custom part holding jigs or fixtures. All of these need to be taken into consideration when designing in order to gain the greatest benefits from AM.

Four ways to (re)design parts

Method 1: Send directly for AM

Method 2: Modify for AM

Method 3: Combine and redesign for AM

Method 4: Rethink and redesign for AM

Method 1: Send directly for AM

The first and easiest is to simply take an existing design and without modification create it using AM technology. This is advantageous when the single part is excessively complex making it difficult to produce using traditional methods or made from materials that are expensive where minimal waste is desirable. This can also be desirable when the lead times for a part are excessively long or if the part is no longer manufactured.

Advantages

  • Easiest
  • Less material wastage
  • Direct single part replacement
  • Potential faster lead times
  • Allows easier manufacture of complex design

Disadvantages

  • Narrow scope of use
  • Limited potential gains

Method 2: Modify for AM

The second is to redesign the single part to either improve performance and/or to make the part better suited for AM.

Advantages

  • Improve performance
  • Decrease weight
  • Improve printability
  • Direct single part replacement
  • Less material wastage

Disadvantages

  • Requires same assembly methods and parts

Method 3: Combine and redesign for AM

The third is to combine multiple parts to aid in part reduction, reduce assembly costs, and enhance performance.

Before 3D printing, this fuel nozzle had 20 different pieces. Now, just one part, the nozzle is 25% lighter and five times more durable.

Advantages

  • Allows reduction of parts
  • Reduce assembly
  • Potentially less risk than a complete redesign of overall machine/assembly

Disadvantages

  • Requires more design time
  • Requires testing and validation

Method 4: Modify for AM

The fourth is to completely rethink the assembly and redesign according to basic first principles and design requirements. While this complete redesign can yield the greatest results, it takes the most time and effort to achieve.

 

Image: Optisys LLCThe test project involved a complete redesign of a high-bandwidth, directional tracking antenna array for aircraft (known as a Ka-band 4×4 monopulse array).

Reduce part count reduction from 100 discrete pieces to a one-piece device.

  • Cut weight by over 95%.
  • Reduce lead time 11 to two months. (eight months of development, three to six more of build time)
  • Reduce production costs by 20%.
  • Eliminate 75% of non-recurring costs.

Advantages

  • Allows greatest performance increases
  • Eliminate parts and assembly
  • Reduce weight, cost, lead time

Disadvantages

  • Most amount of design effort

Wohlers Associates deliver first ever DfAM session in Canada

Wohlers Associates, represented by Terry Wohlers and Olaf Diegel, delivered its first and successful session in Montreal, Quebec. The June 12-14 Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) course, sponsored by Canada Makes Partner CRIQ, was attended by bright and relatively young people experienced with CAD.

Participants came from a variety of sectors, including aerospace, industrial equipment and machinery, CAD and AM product sales and services, academia, government, and research. All with a common goal of of taking the next step in designing for AM. 

Terry Wohlers offered this about the session, “some of the participants said that they especially appreciated the hands-on topology optimization and lattice structure exercises. One participant stated that he attends many technical AM events and this one was, by far, one of the most valuable. Another said he appreciated that lead instructor Olaf Diegel spoke French, although most of the course was conducted in English.”

“Learning how to Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) is critical for maximizing the output from your Additive Equipment,” said participant Hargurdeep Singh Director of Additive Manufacturing CAD MicroSolutions Inc. “Terry Wohlers and Olaf Diegel presented an excellent demonstration of DfAM. I particularly enjoyed learning about the Generative Design and Part Consolidation exercises using hands-on learning techniques.”

The average score given by the participants was 4.9 on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being best, so we were quite pleased with it.

Wohlers Associates will be holding another special three-day course on design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) in Frisco, Colorado August 8 to 10, 2018wohlersassociates.com/DfAM.html

Additive Manufacturing 101-7: What is vat photopolymerization?

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Vat Photopolymerization (Image: 3D Hubs)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the eighth article in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories (binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, vat photopolymerization) and then a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Vat Photopolymerization

ISO/ASTM definition: “vat photopolymerization, —an additive manufacturing process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light-activated polymerization.”[1]

Vat photopolymerization can also be known as (in alphabetical order):

➢ Continuous Liquid Interface Production or CLIP[2]

➢ Scan, Spin and Selectively Photocure Technology or 3SP[3]

➢ Solid Ground Curing or SGC[4]

➢ Stereolithography or SL[5]

➢ Stereolithography Apparatus or SLA® (3D Systems Corporation)

➢ Two-Photon Polymerization or 2PP[6]

Stereolithography was the first AM process to be invented. The first patent was filed in 1975 which described a two-laser 2PP process[7]. The first parts were made by Dr. Hideo Kodama of Japan using SL in 1981[8]. Additional patents followed in 1984 when in three different parts of the world, people patented the SL processes. First on May 23 in Japan by Yoji Marutani[9], then on July 16 in France by Jean Claude André, Alain Le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte[10], and lastly on August 8 in the United States by Charles W. Hull[5]. Chuck Hull was the first to commercialize the technology when he founded 3D Systems in 1986. In 1988, 3D Systems commissioned Alberts Consulting Group to create a file format that could be sliced, resulting in the STL file format[11]. In 1991, Cubital introduced the Solid Ground Curing process but later ceased operations in 1999. In 2015 Carbon3D introduced a novel concept named CLIP using an oxygen-permeable bottom plate to help speed up the printing process. As the original patents surrounding this technology have lapsed, many startups have emerged taking advantage of this original AM process.

vat photopolymerization

vat photopolymerization example

Figure 1: Vat Polymerization example setup[12]

This process involves using a liquid resin as the main type of material. Specifically, this liquid resin has the special property of being able to become solid once it is exposed to light. This light can be ultraviolet as in SL processes, or for 2PP, with two photons of near-infrared (NIR) light hit within a very short period of time (several femtoseconds)[12]. This liquid resin is held in a container or vat, in which a flat build platform is partially submerged. This platform starts near the surface of the liquid and then gets exposed to light. This light can be a UV laser(SL), a digital light processing (DLP) projector, a UV light bulb filtered through a printed mask(SGC), an LCD screen similar to home theater projectors(CLIP), or even from very quick pulses (femtoseconds in length) of near infrared (NIR) laser light tightly focused to a very small area(2PP). Once the resin is cured and made solid, the build platform either moves further into the vat, or partially comes out of the vat leaving the solid cured portion just under the surface and then the process is repeated. In the case of SGC, the uncured resin is removed and then replaced with a liquid wax that solidifies, and then both the cured resin and wax is machined flat using a cutter and prepared for the next layer. If the process involves the platform coming out of the vat the resin needs to be transparent or have the solidification process occur at the very bottom of a vat with a clear window or bottom. However, this can cause the resin to solidify to the bottom which would prevent the platform from moving, or cause it to solidify so closely to the bottom that when the build platform moves up, significant suction is created which results in very slow movements. Recent developments by Carbon3D and the creation of the CLIP process have resulted in very quick builds due to the clear bottom acting as an oxygen permeable membrane which inhibits solidification of the resin within a certain zone around the clear bottom of the vat, which eliminates this suction force. This has shown to increase build speeds from 25-100 times compared to other AM processes, including SL.

Advantages to this type of AM are that it is capable of very high detail surface finish, even down to the nano-scale level, it can be very fast compared to other processes in terms of pure volume, and it’s also able to be scaled up to build desk-sized objects in very large vats.

Disadvantages include a limited number of material properties found in UV curable resins, which are not the most robust materials in terms of durability, strength, or stability. These resins can change shape over time, potentially change colour, and usually need a post-curing UV light oven to cure the material fully in order to get the most strength out of them. Some resins are also toxic and special gloves need to be used to handle parts until they are fully cured. Depending on the geometry of the part, support structures are required and can be very complex and require manual removal afterwards.

References

[1] “ISO/ASTM 52900:2015(en), Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.

[2] Tumbleston J. R., Shirvanyants D., Ermoshkin N., Janusziewicz R., Johnson A. R., Kelly D., Chen K., Pinschmidt R., Rolland J. P., Ermoshkin A., Samulski E. T., and DeSimone J. M., “Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects,” Science, vol. 347, no. 6228, pp. 1349–1352, Mar. 2015.

[3] Groth C., Kravitz N. D., Jones P. E., Graham J. W., and Redmond W. R., “Three-dimensional printing technology.,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics : JCO, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 475–85, Aug. 2014.

[4] Levi H., “Accurate rapid prototyping by the solid ground curing technology,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 1991, pp. 110–114.

[5] Hull C. W., “Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography,” U.S. Patent 4,575,330, 11-Mar-1986.

[6] Maruo S., Nakamura O., and Kawata S., “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Optics Letters, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 132, Jan. 1997.

[7] Swanson W. K. and Kremer S. D., “Three dimensional systems,” U.S. Patent 4,078,229, 07-Mar-1978.

[8] Kodama H., “Automatic method for fabricating a three-dimensional plastic model with photo-hardening polymer,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 52, no. 11, p. 1770, 1981.

[9] Marutani Y., “Optical Shaping Method,” Japanese Patent 60,247,515, 07-Dec-1985.

[10] André J. C., Mehaute A. Le, and Witte O. de, “Device For Producing A Model Of An Industrial Part,” French Patent 2,567,668, 17-Jan-1986.

[11] Allison J., “Re: History of .stl format,” [Online email], 15-Jan-1997. [Online]. Available: http://www.rp-ml.org/rp-ml-1997/0091.html. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2016].

[12] Gibson I., Rosen D. W., and Stucker B., Additive Manufacturing Technologies. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010.

Additive Manufacturing 101-6: What is sheet lamination?

(Image: 3D Hubs)

Material Jetting (Image: 3D Hubs)

  Mechanical Design Engineer and Additive Manufacturing Ph.D. student

This is the seventh article in a series of original articles that will help you understand the origins of the technology that is commonly called 3D printing. First an introduction, followed by the seven main technologies categories (binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, vat photopolymerization) and then a design philosophy for additive manufacturing.

Sheet Lamination

ISO/ASTM definition: “sheet lamination, —an additive manufacturing process in which sheets of material are bonded to form a part.”[1]

Sheet Lamination can also be known as (in alphabetical order):

➢ Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Laminated Engineering Materials or CAM-LEM[2]

➢ Laminated Object Manufacturing or LOM[3]

➢ Plastic Sheet Lamination or PSL (Solidimension Ltd.)

➢ Selective Deposition Lamination or SDL (Mcor Technologies Ltd.)

➢ Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing or UAM[4]

➢ Ultrasonic Consolidation or UC[5]

The LOM process was developed by a company named Helisys and in 1991 they started selling a machine that made 3D parts using rolls of paper and a CO2 laser[6]. The company eventually went bankrupt and later formed Cubic Technologies; however, in 1999, a company from Israel called Solidimension developed a system very similar to LOM using sheets of PVC plastic rather than paper[6]. Also in 1999, a USA company called Solidica (now Fabrisonic) patented a new hybrid method[7] which looked similar to LOM but used metal tapes and films which were joined using ultrasonic vibrations, and then a CNC machine used traditional subtractive manufacturing methods to remove material. In 2005, Japanese company Kira started production of a paper-based machine similar to LOM called the PLT-20 KATANA but using a steel cutter rather than a laser. By 2008 Mcor Technologies launched their first SDL machine called the Matrix which deposited individual sheets of A4 paper rather than rolls of paper like LOM or Kira and selectively glued down sheets which were then cut using a steel cutter. This process allowed Mcor to later develop full-colour parts by printing on the paper before being glued down.

Figure 1: Sheet lamination example setup[8]

This process starts with a single layer of solid material put across the build surface, be it paper (LOM and SDL) or PVC plastic (PSL) or metal (UAM/UC) or ceramic (CAM-LEM). This layer may or may not be bonded to the previous layers first as it depends on the process. Some processes bond the entire layer to the previous and then cut the 2D slice into the layer as with SDL or UAM, while other processes cut the 2D slice into the layer first, and then bond it onto the previous layers afterwards like CAM-LEM. The bonding between each layer occurs by a number of different methods depending on the process. For SDL and PSL, bonding is performed by applying a type of glue to the build surface. Layers are bonded together in LOM through melting a polymer that is embedded within the roll of paper. In the case of UC, the layers have an atomic migration between layers in a very small zone which fuses the layers together. The 2D slice data is either cut into the layer with a laser (LOM/CAM-LEM) or a blade (SDL/PSL) or machined away with a traditional CNC cutter (UAM/UC), and then the process starts over with a new solid layer being placed on top. In the CAM-LEM process, all the 2D layers are first pre-cut from a ceramic tape and then assembled and stacked on top of each other. Then a binder is added to give it strength before it is placed in an oven and fired to sinter the material together. With CAM-LEM, there is potential to cut the layers tangentially to the surface so that the traditional steps that are seen in AM are reduced and nearly eliminated[9], although it does not appear to have made it past the demonstration phase.

Advantages of this process tie directly to the individual processes. SDL can do full-colour prints, is relatively inexpensive since the raw material is normal office paper, can be infused with materials to increase strength or colour saturation, and excess material can be recycled. UC can do metal, and has the ability to do multi-metal layers within the overall part but not in the same layer, but can also embed other things into the part like wires, sensors, or fibres. CAM-LEM can process ceramic parts. No support material is needed since each layer is already solid and can support itself, although there are limitations to this as certain geometries like internal voids and cavities may not be possible.

A common disadvantage of all processes is that the layer height can’t be changed without changing the thickness of the sheets of material being used. Thus the layer steps and surface roughness is directly tied to sheet thickness. Regardless of the size of part being made, an entire sheet is consumed per layer, so material waste can be high if parts don’t make full use of the build volume. When layers are bonded before the 2D layer is cut out, the removal of excess material can be quite labour intensive. Excess material removal may not even be possible for some internal geometry. Even though UC creates solid metal parts, the bonds between layers are weaker than in the other directions, which could result in delamination. LOM cutting is performed with lasers and there is smoke and a chance of fire, which is why that technology was not very popular and why it moved to steel cutters instead.

References

[1] “ISO/ASTM 52900:2015(en), Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology,” International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.
[2] Cawley J. D., Heuer A. H., Newman W. S., and Mathewson B. B., “Computer-aided manufacturing of laminated engineering materials,” American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 75–79, 1996.

[3] Feygin M. and Hsieh B., “Laminated object manufacturing: A simpler process,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 1991, pp. 123–130.

[4] Sriraman M. R., Babu S. S., and Short M., “Bonding characteristics during very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing of copper,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 560–563, Apr. 2010.

[5] Kong C. Y., Soar R. C., and Dickens P. M., “Optimum process parameters for ultrasonic consolidation of 3003 aluminium,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 181–187, Feb. 2004.

[6] Wohlers T. and Gornet T., “History of Additive Manufacturing,” in Wohlers Report 2014 – 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry, Wohlers Associates Inc, 2014, pp. 1–34.

[7] White D., “Ultrasonic object consolidation,” U.S. Patent 6,519,500, 11-Feb-2003.

[8] Upcraft S. and Fletcher R., “The rapid prototyping technologies,” Assembly Automation, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 318–330, Dec. 2003.

[9] Zheng Y., Choi S., Mathewson B. B., and Newman W. S., “Progress in Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Laminated Engineering Materials Utilizing Thick, Tangent-Cut Layers,” in Proceedings of the 7th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, Texas, USA, 1996, pp. 355–362.